ERP Navision – Microsoft Dynamics NAV ERP Software Review

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In 2000 Navision software merged with Damgaard to form Navision Damgaard A/S which was later named as Navision A/S, this company was taken over by Microsoft and released ERP solution branded as Microsoft Dynamics NAV in 2005. Apart from Dynamics NAV, Microsoft has three other ERP solutions GP, SL and AX and a CRM solution. Microsoft took up an ambitious project to unify all the four ERP solutions to give one compact single solution which has been called off recently due to disappointing results, now Microsoft is supporting and enhancing all the four solutions.

Microsoft Dynamics NAV ERP is more suitable to distribution and wholesale industry which needs industry specific solutions for efficient working. For distribution industry it comes loaded with latest features like item tracking and automated data capture system. It is also suitable for companies in cross-border business with facilities to handle multi-currency transactions, multi-language support and features in financial management for consolidation of data of different divisions and subsidiaries.

Business analytics for Navision ERP supports online analytical processing services with interactive graphical representation of key performance indicators and trends and patterns of the market. Navision ERP software’s system management application provides facility to design forms, customize access to menus and other functionalities according to the roles and responsibility, it also allows the administrator to specify rights to access for subsidiaries and employees for smooth functioning and data security. Even internet access can be monitored by the administrator.

It uses SQL server as a database but can also work with a native database server called as classic, however SQL is more capable in handling large data and comes with advanced facilities for writing procedures. ERP Navision comes with a solution set which is for enhancing its capabilities and applications can be written in Pascal like language, this makes Navision ERP easily customizable software. There is no need for separate procedures for handling the database, the application itself can handle the interface and the database which reduces the time in customization compared to other ERP solutions.

Apart from distribution and wholesale this ERP product of Microsoft family has features for Financial management, Human capital management, supply chain management, supply chain analytics, customer relationship management, E-commerce, manufacturing and flexible reporting and analysis tools. These features make it a complete ERP solution and suitable one for mid sized companies. Navision ERP comes with more economical licensing offers as compared to other ERP software’s with similar features and facilities. Its scalability has been appreciated by its users too and can grow according to the growing needs of the organization, upgrades are well supported by Microsoft.

Like other Microsoft ERP solutions Navision too is tightly integrated with other Microsoft products like MS-office and Excel which makes it easier to use. As well as Navision ERP integrates easily with other non-Microsoft products and popular software which are commonly used by the companies for specific solutions. Microsoft provides vertical solutions to many industries by means of its other products, easy and smooth connectivity of Navision ERP with such products now and in future also makes it more useful ERP than others.

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Mutual Fund Nav’s

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Net asset value (NAV) represents a fund’s per share market value. This is the price at which investors buy („bid price“) fund shares from a fund company and sell them („redemption price“) to a fund company. It is derived by dividing the total value of all the cash and securities in a fund’s portfolio, less any liabilities, by the number of shares outstanding. An NAV computation is undertaken once at the end of each trading day based on the closing market prices of the portfolio’s securities.For example, if a fund has assets of INR 50 million and liabilities of INR 10 million, it would have a NAV of INR 40 million. The NAV is the important in terms of share trading this number is important to investors, because it is from NAV that the price per unit of a fund is calculated. By dividing the NAV of a fund by the number of outstanding units, you are left with the price per unit. If the fund has 4 million shares outstanding, the price-per-share value would be INR 40 million divided by 4 million, which equals INR 10. Because mutual funds distribute virtually all their income and realized capital gains to fund shareholders, a mutual fund’s NAV is relatively unimportant in gauging a fund’s performance, which is best judged by its total return.NAVs are helpful in keeping an eye on your mutual fund’s price movement, but NAVs are not the best way to keep track of performance. The reason for this is mutual fund distributions. Mutual funds are forced by law to distribute at least 90% of its‘ realized capital gains and dividend income each year. When a fund pays out this distribution, the NAV drops by the amount paid. This is important because an investor may become frightened when they see their fund’s NAV drop by INR 3 even though they haven’t lost any money (the INR 3 was paid out to the shareholder).The most important thing to keep in mind is that Mutual Fund NAVs change daily and are not a good indicator on how your portfolio is doing because things like distributions mess with the NAV (it also makes mutual funds hard to track)

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IRS Payment Plans – How They Work

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If you owe debt to the IRS and can not pay in full a payment plan or IRS installment agreement may be negotiated. While this may be a good option for you to avoid wage garnishment, tax levies, etc., generally the faster you pay off the debt the less fees and penalties you will be subjected to. Interest on these plans is usually 8% to 10% per year. If you owe $ 25,000 or less, you should be able to get an installment plan for 60 months, no questions asked. If you owe more than $ 25,000, you will have to negotiate with the IRS to get an installment plan.

Negotiating an Installment Agreement With the IRS

If you do Owe more than $ 25,000 the negotiating will begin with an IRS collector analyzing your Collection Information Statement on Form 433-A. This form will be used to determine the amount you are eligible to pay. When you fill out the form you should never agree to pay more than you can afford just to get your plan approved. When negotiating, you should offer to pay the amount of your income minus your necessary living expenses. If the IRS approves an installment agreement, it may take several months to notify you, but it is a good idea to send a first payment (and 2nd and 3rd and so on) until the IRS notifies you of its decision. If your offer was refused, the payments will still go to your unsettled tax debt.

If the IRS did refuse your offer, it is probably because they do not consider all of your living expenses necessary. Not that you should give up everything, but try and be a little flexible here. Also, if the information you provided on form 433-A was inaccurate or you failed on a different installment agreement you may also be refused your payment plan. If your first offer was rejected, for whatever reason, you may continue to negotiate. The amount you offer is up to you, but be realistic. If you get the installment plan approved there are a few things that can have it revoked such as:

  • You fail to file your tax returns
  • You miss a payment (if you do miss a payment you should notify the IRS ASAP)
  • It is discovered that your installment agreement was filed under false pretenses

IRS Fees Associated With IRS Agreement Plans

The user fee for new installment agreements is $ 105 and $ 52 for agreements where payments are deducted directly from your bank account. Taxpayers with income at or below established levels, can apply for a reduced fee of $ 43. Information about requesting the reduced user fee will be included in installment agreement acceptance letter sent to individuals.

There is also a user fee of $ 45 for reinstating defaulted agreements or restructuring existing agreements. If you already have an approved installment agreement from a previous tax debt and your financial situation has changed, we may be able to modify or restructure your installment agreement to include additional amounts owed into one agreement.

Professional Help With IRS Payment Plans

If you do not feel comfortable negotiating a debt payment plan with the IRS or are not ’sure if it is the best option for you you should contact a tax lawyer who has experience dealing with IRS. A lawyer with this experience can be helpful in the regard of knowing exactly what steps you should take because of your individual situation. They may be able to help you avoid a great deal of hassle and may help avoid additional fines and interest, or even such penalties that you may not be obligated to serve in the first place.

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The Future of Financial Services

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The ease of making financial transactions and financial services in general, had first been revolutionised when telegraph companies introduced wire transfers. But with the coming of new age financial services like Bitcoin and Ripple, it is the time we address the question of what the future holds for the financial services of the world.

Traditional Wire Transfers

Let us begin by first taking a look at how things have been going on for these past 150 years since wire transfers were first introduced. Transferring funds using a wire transfer method via a bank is not a single step process but a multi-step process. It is like this:

  • The sender approaches his or her bank and orders the transfer of funds to an account. Unique codes like BIC and IBAN codes are provided to the bank by the sender so that the bank knows exactly where the funds need to be transferred.
  • The sender’s bank contacts the receiver’s bank by sending a message through a security system, such as Fedwire or SWIFT, signalling it that a transfer needs to be made. The receiver’s bank receives this message, which includes settlement instructions as well, and then asks the sender’s bank to transfer the amount specified in the message.
  • The sender’s bank now transfers the amount. This is not done in one go but bit by bit, so it can take anywhere from a few hours to a couple of days for the entire sum to be transferred.
  • To make the transfer, the two banks must have a reciprocal account with one another. If that is not the case, the transfer is made through a correspondent bank that holds such an account.

As one can see, this form of transfer relies overly on a mediator, takes more time than it should, and can prove to be costly as the banks charge some fee for their service. Distributed currencies like Bitcoin provide a viable alternative to this process.

Decentralized Currencies

What sets services like Bitcoin apart from traditional services is that they do not rely on a central mediator but rather operate using cryptographic protocols. The process is therefore faster, simpler, and much more efficient. The system is quite transparent to both end users as well while traditional systems are susceptible to fraud due to the complex process involved.

However, there is a downside to this too. With services like Bitcoin, it is simple to trace a transaction back to each unit value’s creation.

Solution? A Common Ground

More and more people are opting for services like Bitcoin and peer-to-peer mobile transfers, where a network operator could help users transfer funds by simply sending an SMS. Although these are indeed more efficient, they are a long way from global acceptance because there are many who still do not have bank accounts, plus there is the issue of limited user identification in such services.

What would be ideal for everyone is if banks could tap into the potential of decentralized currencies and overlap the source code of services like Ripple on their existing system to form a hybrid of the two. It would kill two birds with one stone as:

  1. Decentralized currency systems provide more efficient transfers
  2. Bank systems ensure only registered users access the service, taking away the possibility of foul play.


The world has come a long way since the last time an indigenous financial service system was introduced. There is definitely a crying need to improve this traditional service and decentralized currencies like Bitcoin have shown them the way.

Although these are two different services and proper cyber security measures with their own shortcomings, if they were to be applied together, they could fit each other’s gaps perfectly, making for a system that revolutionizes the financial service system again.

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Can You Really Make Money With Solar Power?

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What’s the real truth behind all those ads?

Just searching around online for information about solar power, solar energy, and installing solar panels on your own home, you’ve probably run across many claims which say you can earn money from solar power. So is it true? Yes … sort of.

You see, it’s not nearly as cut and dry as many advertisements would lead you to believe. There is a process involved, and for most people it requires extensive investments before you can actually start „making money“ from the solar power you’re generating.

It’s becoming a well known fact that installing solar panels on your home can drastically reduce your electricity bills. In fact, if you install enough of them, you can eliminate your monthly electric bill entirely. And if you happen to generate extra electricity … and you live in the appropriate place … you might be able to get „paid“ for the solar power you generate.

The catch though, is that you have to be generating more power from your solar panels than you actually use.

Most residential solar installations only provide part of the total household electric usage, because installing a large enough solar panel system to cover the entire load can cost upwards of $ 10,000. And even though building your own solar panels is much less expensive at an average of about $ 200 per panel, many standard size households in the United States need 10-20 panels just to get close to covering their own electricity usages each month.

Here’s how the reality tends to work for most American families:

1. They install a small, starter solar panel system that’s relatively inexpensive. This system helps them reduce their overall monthly electric bill, but in most cases the starter system only provides enough electricity to reduce the bills by 30% -50%.

Larger reductions can be obtained easily of course, simply by installing a larger solar panel system right from the start. Not everyone can afford that large initial investment though, so they go with a starter system instead.

2. Over time the family may add to their home solar panel array. As you add solar panels, you continue taking more of the load off of public electricity needs. This of course continues lowering your electricity bills.

3. If the family continues investing in additional solar panels over time, they will eventually reach the point where they are providing 100% of their own home’s electricity needs. This is when the public electric bill is hopefully at $ 0.00 per month year round.

That point the At, the if the family wants to start „earning money“ from hwy solar power ’s installation, they ‚re will need to Reduce hwy power ’s own consumption, install more solar panels, or both. The only way they can earn money directly from this investment is to generate extra electrical power which can be sold back to the public electric company.

Not all electric companies will actually „buy back“ the power you generate either. In fact, most of them simply give you energy credits which can be applied to your existing utility bill. In most cases if you have no electric bill to pay though, those credits can be cashed in a few times each year, for a partial part of their value.

So before you decide to install solar panels as a way to make money, evaluate your true situation first. Figure out how much electricity your family uses on average, and use that figure to know how many solar panels you’ll need to buy. Calculate that cost first and if you’re still determined to try and make money from this venture, research your local laws. Also be sure to talk to your local power company so you’ll know their policies and restrictions before you invest more money than you need to.

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How to Buy Gold Anonymously

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In times of crisis many people turn to gold. The metal is proven to retain its value over the years, and for this reason it is makes a great reserve, something secure to fall back on when all else fails. For the same reason many people also like to purchase gold anonymously. Surely it is better, if government laws change or if you are sued, that nobody knows where your gold is?

Buying gold through BullionVault (or similar)

It is certainly possible to buy gold bullion online quite easily or even to have it delivered to your house. The trouble is, you will have to hand over your personal details to the vendor, such as a passport or certified copy. Any authority interested in your assets will then without difficulty find out that the gold is yours, because the vendor is obliged to tell them.

Buying gold anonymously

Instead this article focuses on how to buy gold anonymously. The first step is to open an offshore bank account, which can be done in a matter of minutes. You will have to show identification, such as a passport or proof of address – but this will never be revealed to anybody, it remains secret between you and your offshore banker.

The next step is to purchase the gold. Since you already have an offshore account, you can buy your gold in the name of the offshore banking house. There are two advantages here:

1) The gold purchase is completely private. Nobody except you and the banker needs to know that you purchased this Gold.

2) Since you are buying the gold through the banker who is already an established client of multiple gold vendors, you can buy and sell your gold at a better rate. The banking house makes no profit on the purchase or sale of said gold.

Now what?

At this point you can have the gold physically delivered to you, although this will incur significant charges, or merely keep it in a secure AAA rated depository. The banker will not charge you anything extra for these services, but will merely pass on charges incurred by the vault.

Gold Diamond Elissian Buying in this way not only maintains your privacy – very important ’s for some, but can Also workTel out cheaper, DEPENDING on how much you buy gold Diamond Elissian. In addition you will always have your offshore account, so if you tire of gold, you are free to invest in something you judge more profitable – anonymously.

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Challenges faced by Human Resource Managers in the Era of Gloablization

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„The real wealth of a nation is its people. And the purpose of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. This simple but powerful truth is too often forgotten in the pursuit of material and financial wealth.“


Globalization of Indian economy is compelling organization to rethink their future strategies. It is now widely recognized that transformation is a pre-requisite to their survival and growth. Business organization in India especially public enterprises are experiencing winds of change. For the HR function, there would not be a more existing and challenging opportunity than managing the complexities of change and transformation. HR today is playing a lead role along with business functions in creating the necessary momentum and internal capabilities.

Now first let us understand what we mean by globalization.


Every day we hear it on news, we read it in the newspapers, we overhear people talking about it… and in every single moment the word ‘globalization‘ seems to have a different meaning. So what is globalization?

„…integration of business activities across geographical and organizational boundaries.“

„The capacity to treat the world as one market while…dealing with many culturally diverse merchants.“

„…the process by which markets expands to include competitors for customers and productive inputs without regard to national boundaries“.

„…doing business with a world wide focus… rather than doing business in an international market with the focus from a home-country viewpoint.“

Globalization is not just a recent phenomenon. Some analysts have argued that the world economy was just a globalized 100 years ago as it is today. Yet the term is used since the 1980’s, reflecting technological advances that have made it easier and quicker to complete international transactions, both trade and financial flows. The most striking aspect of this has been the integration of financial markets made possible by modern electronic communication.

At a political and economic level, globalization is the process of denationalization of markets, politics and legal systems i.e. the use of the so-called global economy. Globalization refers to an extension beyond national borders of the same market forces that have operated for centuries at all levels of human economic activity (village markets, urban industries, or financial centers). It means that world trade and financial markets are becoming more integrated.

At a business level, we talk of globalization when organization decides to take part in the emerging global economy and establish themselves in foreign markets. First they will adapt their products or services to the customer’s linguistic and cultural requirements. Then, they might take advantage of the internet revolution and establish a virtual presence on the international market place with a multilingual corporate website or even as an e-business.

Overall, globalization requires a combination of linguistic, engineering and marketing knowledge that is not easily available. (Sparrow, Paul, R, 2006)

Globalization is linked to four major aspects:

  1. Trade
  2. Capital movements
  3. Movement of people
  4. Spread of knowledge


Driving factors of globalization can be divided into four groups:


  • Convergence of per capita income
  • Convergence of life styles
  • Organizations behavior as global customers


  • Push for economics of scale
  • Advances in transportation
  • Emergence of newly industrialized countries with productive capability and low labor costs


  • Growth of global networks making countries interdependent
  • Rise of new competitors intent on becoming global competitors
  • Increased formation of global strategies alliances


  • Reduction on tariffs and other trade barriers
  • Privatization of industry in many parts of the world
  • Creation of trading blocks (i.e. EU)

Globalization has elevated the importance of HRM development in organization. These changes have led to the notion of the HR system as a strategic asset. Many of the arguments about processes of globalization within the HR function rest on the assumption that there has and continues to be longitudinal change in the conduct of HR. in the intervening seven years a wide range of contextual changes have led to significant globalization of activity, including: the transfer of work abroad, either to outsourced providers or on a global in-sourcing basis; the e-enablement of many HR process; greater sophistication in the HR information technology, new structures for international HR functions; greater competition for talented staff at all levels of organization; more protracted and strategic talent pipelines. In particular, there has been a very strong marketing, corporate communication and IT influence on the HR function. The HR function is realigning itself in response to this process of cross-function globalization (building new alliances with these functions) creating new activity streams and new roles and skills required of the HR function (Sparrow, Brewster and Harris, 2004).


Issues facing HR are expected to change dramatically in the next decades. Thus, HR professionals must play special roles in dealing with these changes and must develop specific competencies to support these roles.

Workplace flexibility is expected to be on the rise as the future workplace, the ‘virtual office‘ is characterized by creative and flexible work arrangements. As more employees work off-site-up to two thirds of an organization in the 21st century – there will be an increase in emphasis on performance and results as opposed to the number of hours worked. In addition, off-site employees can expect to attend fewer meetings. Specified work will become much more collaborative and management will spend nearly all its time managing cross-functional work teams who enjoy a lot of autonomy. In essence, there will be a movement, a trend towards a decentralized model of HR.

HR managers will have to accommodate employees in their virtual work locations and find ways to manage corporate culture, socialization and employee orientation. In order to obtain and maintain a competent workforce, they must act as organizational performance experts and shape employees behavior without face to face meetings.

Another expected change in HR is the ‘Global Business‘ concept world trade knew a major growth during the last years and there is forecasted as well the growth of international businesses, especially among small firms. Organization rely more and more organization HR specialists as the facilitators of work across borders and among different cultures. Therefore, they must be knowledgeable of other cultures, languages and business practices. They will be required to develop and manage an international workforce, maintain written and unwritten corporate polices for transportability to other cultures, keep top management informed of the costs of not paying attention to the transnational issues and provide their services to a variety of locations world wide.

Concerning the recruitment in the above mentioned ‘global business‘ it will be important which strategy will be adopted by the management.

Globalization will impact HR managers by requiring new skills such as language capabilities. For e.g., in order to recruit employees from other cultures, HR managers will either have to learn new languages or else they will certainly have to have foreign speakers on staff. But in order to facilitate communication among people coming from a wide range of language backgrounds, in most multinationals, it is preferred to speak English.

However, when we talk about Globalization and culture, then how does this relation influence businesses and HR professionals‘ attitudes?

Organization must take into account cultural differences that shape managerial attitudes, when developing multinational management programs. For e.g., British managers value individual achievement and autonomy, whereas French managers appreciate competent supervision, fringe benefits, security and comfortable conditions, while Indian managers gives more importance of their culture and tradition.

HR managers must therefore be familiar with and understand other cultural norms to promote organization diversity. An organization that recognizes and promotes cultural diversity will benefit because it will be employing the market that it serves. With increasing globalization and competition within the market, a diverse workforce is conducive to attracting and retaining a strong client base. While competing in an international market, employees from diverse national backgrounds provide language skills and understanding of other cultures. HR professionals will also be responsible for providing cultural sensitivity training for the organizations employees and for managers throughout the entire organization. (Czebter, Anamaria, 2002)


 Unlike the other industries where HR is considered as a functional need, there is a need to view HR as a partner or a business enabler. One of the constant challenges faced in this area is to align HR to business. The five R’s therefore, assume utmost significance in HR strategy. The HR team needs to get in right from the stage of defining the business strategy to Resourcing, Recruiting the right talent, Retaining the talent, Retraining and Restructuring.

However, if we see the scenario of HR in IT company, we find that flexibility appears to be the key for success and survival as IT has become such a dynamic field due to the constant developments and upgradation in the area of technology and changing customer requirements. Topping all these reasons is also the trend of globalization, which tries the HR test of endurance. The ability and the willingness to modify job structure, job classification and the organizational structure as often and as quickly as necessary are important elements in a successful recruitment and retention strategy for IT professionals. This challenges of managing expectations and change puts constant pressure on the professionals.

The challenge does not stop with recruiting the right person but with how we are going to manage the performance of our employees. The challenge would be to create a performance culture where in opportunities are provided for enhanced performance and where giving out optimum performance becomes a way of life.

Training and development is another area. In the IT industry training takes on a new connotation. It is not just about identifying training needs and giving the required training. It is foreseeing and anticipating the requirements and developing suitable training so that the employees are well-equipped to handle the challenges.

Another major challenge is how we are able to incorporate all the sub-systems in HR and help them in achieving the ultimate goal – exceptional performance. People have to be groomed to get in tune with the performance culture. Creating an environment that stimulates the creation of knowledge and its sustenance throughout the organization is big challenge. No longer can the HR department carry on with its traditional functions. However, Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) is to be put in place – to build and sustain a performance – driven culture. The role will shift to that of facilitator. HR will have to involve the whole organization in this process and act as a counselor and facilitator and that is the most gigantic challenge the HR of any organization faces.

In the face of such challenges faced by HR managers, a question arises as to what competencies an HR manager needs to equip them in order to survive in the turbulent phase of globalization.


In order to effectively deal with all the changes, HR professionals must develop competencies that will allow them to carry out their roles, competences like:

  • Flexibility
  • Team work
  • Communication
  • Decisiveness
  • Leadership
  • Strategic planning
  • Network building
  • Client service orientation
  • Organizational awareness
  • Self confidence
  • Sharing of expertise
  • Global and cultural understanding
  • Multiple language competencies

In addition to increasing and sustaining technological skills relating to communication developments, HR professionals will may also be required to increase their numerical and data compilations skills. As increasing demands merge to provide specific measurable results that prove effectiveness in their area, HR professionals will be required that produce quantifiable results that prove that their department is delivering specified outcomes based on the objectives and goals set forth by the organization.

In addition to delivering specific measurable developments, managers will also need to know what contributed to the results declared. This may mean that HR professionals will be required to be familiar with and administer employee survey and provide for accurate data compilation and regression analysis.

As a result of the increase in technology, innovation and globalization over the last 20 years, HR professionals around the world are forced to be more efficient, more effective and more competitive. They need to respond to the demands of global competitiveness by becoming more familiar with language skills, cultural awareness and diversity promotion. Additionally, HR professionals must be committed to continuous learning, being familiar with cutting edge communication. If HR managers won’t pay enough attention to their changing role, serous consequences could result, including the deterioration or even perhaps the elimination of the HR department. (Halcrow A, 1998)


However, the research has shown that the HR function in international organization has to meet a series of challenges. Three key conclusions about the role of HR professionals working in the field of international recruitment selection and assessment can be drawn:

  1. The added value of the HR function in an international firm lies in its ability to manage the delicate, balance between globally coordinated systems and sensitivity to local needs, including cultural differences, in a way that align with both business needs and senior management philosophy.
  2.  There now appear to be a distinction to be made between international HRM and global HRM.
  3. In this transition, the old functional divides between international recruitment, international management development and international reward management have become increasingly weak.

Over the last 20 years, the workplace has changed in more ways that one could have ever imagined, resulting from the increase in technology, innovation and globalization. The next decade will bring even greater change, impacting all facets of the workplace, including major changes for the HR department and HR managers. In order to respond to the demands of globalization, HR managers will require new skills and competencies relating to language and culture, technology capabilities to facilitate overseas communication, methods to measure and quantify effectiveness and evaluate strategies and return on investment. Evidently, these new skills and competencies will result in an emerging new role for HR managers, requiring them to be strategic business partner, supportive of the overall corporate strategy.

The future role of HR professional will change from a less administrative role to more of a strategic role. HR managers will continually be required to prove their effectiveness and their existence. They will be expected to understand international business practices and promote cultural diversity within the organization. They will need to understand the core business of the organization and become partners with line managers. They will need to prove that their initiatives and programs are result-oriented, providing specific measurable results in terms of business competitiveness that contribute positively to the bottom-line of the organization. They will be required to stay current with leading edge as more and more organization is faced with the demands of globalization and strategic alliances with other organization around the world.


  1. Czebter, Anamaria, (2002), ‘Labor market and Gloablization: Human Resources management in global enterprises, Centre International de Formation Europeenne, Nice.
  2. Halcrow A, (1998), ‘Survey shows HR in Transition workforce‘.
  3. Sparrow, Paul, R., (2006) ‘Globalization of HR at function level: Exploring the issues through International Recruitment, Selection and Assessment Process, working papers, Cornell University.
  4. Sparrow, Paul, R., Brewster, C., and Harris, H. (2004), ‘Globalizing Human Resource Management‘, London, Routledge.

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