Steam Room Benefits

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The benefits of the steam room have been known for thousands of years and throughout history countless people have been using steam to enhance their sense of well being and improve their overall health. At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st a huge influx in health conscious individuals in western society has fuelled a vast growth in the health industry.

In the past, steam rooms have been restricted to health clubs and gyms, and many think steam rooms are only used at home by the wealthy; however top steam room specialists have made this wonderful past time available to everybody, not just the rich. With cutting edge technology at affordable prices, countless people are now enjoying all the wonderful benefits of a steam room.

Brief Overview of Steam Room Benefits

In a steam room, wet heat opens the pores of your skin to aid body detoxification. A steam generator is used to create water vapour at high levels of humidity. The heat and humidity may bring health benefits ranging from aiding stress relief, to body cleansing, to soothing aching muscles or arthritis. This article will highlight the main benefits and the importance of using a steam room:

1st Steam Room Benefit: Eliminate toxins

The average body has approximately 2.6 million sweat glands. The body only has four ways to excrete toxins; urine, feces, respiration and perspiration. During a steam room session the body can sweat out up to 30% of its toxins that have built up. Studies have shown that environmental chemicals and poor diet cause 95% of cancers, which in today’s society makes a steam room a very healthy and practical addition to the home.

2nd Steam Room Benefit: Rejuvenate and Hydrate the Skin

Heat from the steam causes the heart to beat faster and harder in an attempt to cool the body, causing blood to flood even the smallest capillaries. Increased blood flow to these tiny capillaries (just under the skins surface) causes the skin to glow and look healthy because the blood cells carry minerals, vitamins and oxygen: vital for a healthy body. In addition, this increases the rate of body metabolism.

3rd Steam Room Benefit: Boost the immune system: Hyperthermia

Hyperthermia refers to an elevation of core body temperature to above 37.2°C for therapeutic purposes. During a steam room session the body temperature rises and when the body temperature rises it is called a fever (elevation of body temperature above the normal level). A virus can only usually survive within a narrow temperature range. Therefore an increase in body temperature may either stunt the virus‘ multiplication or kill the virus. Fever triggers the body to release white blood cells, antibodies and a protein called interferon. The white blood cells, which are produced in the bone marrow, help to defend the body against infectious diseases and foreign materials. Antibodies are proteins which help protect against disease-causing micro-organisms whilst interferon is any group of proteins produced by cells in the body in response to an attack by a virus.

4th Steam Room Benefit: Enhance the Respiratory System

Steam inhalation supports mucosal secretions in the respiratory system and helps to open up the airways therefore reducing respiration resistance. This helps to relieve the discomfort of asthma and allergies. Steam room benefits also include relieving inflammation and congestion of upper respiratory mucous membranes. It also helps to loosen secretions, stimulate the discharge of mucous from the throat and lungs (natural expectorant) and keeps mucous membranes from excessive drying.

5th Steam Room Benefit: Relieve Stress and Relax Muscles

Heat from the steam causes the muscles to relax, widening the blood vessels, allowing more oxygen to flow to them, releasing their tension. The heat also gives relief to sufferers of arthritis. The heat from the steam causes the whole body to relax; this experience melts away stress and soothes the mind & body.

David Daniel is a successful writer in the subjects of home improvement and bathroom renovation providing the consumer information on Steam Shower rooms and Sauna units. To view more articles visit: Steam Room Benefits. He also writes articles for Di Vapor Steam Showers

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Microsoft Dynamics ERP Selection – GP, AX, NAV, SL and CRM

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Microsoft Dynamics ERP has four products GP, NAV, AX and SL. It has separate solution for CRM known as Microsoft Dynamics CRM. In these Microsoft Dynamics products one may come across serious over lapping of solutions and it is really hard to find the realistic logic behind four products with almost similar solutions.

Microsoft AX was previously known as Axapta till Microsoft took over it and released the version with the name of Microsoft Dynamics AX. This ERP solution is focused towards companies having several divisions and doing business across locations where compliance of business processes and best practices is a must. Microsoft AX can be easily customized to adapt for business processes and is cost effective along with this it comes with features to automate and provide solutions for finance, human resource, sales, web stores, supply chain management, warehouses, distribution, balanced scorecards, knowledge management and business analytics. As it has been upgraded and designed to work at distant locations it supports multi lingual and multi currency functions.

Microsoft GP previously known as great plains, is an adaptable ERP solution for changing market and business requirements. It is primarily focused towards mid size companies and divisions of larger enterprises. It is capable of connecting business processes across the organization and supporting unique business processes. It also comes with strong and adaptable applications for finance, supply chain management, human resource, manufacturing, distribution and project accounting. Integration capabilities with in the application and other applications are immense in Microsoft Dynamics GP, it uses biztalk server, com. MSMQ and web services for high speed, flexible and safe data incorporation and integration from any source.

Microsoft Dynamics NAV comes with strong financial features and helps small and midsize companies to streamline specialized and industry specific business processes. It is easy to use and adapt, it comes with add on tools and NAV utilities which help programmers and database administrators to customize it with convenience and quickly according to the clients needs. Microsoft NAV comes with complete functionality for finance, SCM, CRM, service, distribution and e-commerce. It also provide the feature of role tailored or role center where screens are customized by removing irrelevant fields and information to make it easier to understand, work and comply with company policies and practices.

Microsoft Dynamics SL previously Solomon is mainly focused on project based and distribution centric enterprises. Its project accounting and project management feature help project based companies to manage their on premise projects separately and projects at different locations. Project management option of SL provides facilities of material planning, job cost, material management to lower cost, service call and handle complex jobs with out project delays to improve customer satisfaction. For distribution based companies it provides features to reduce over and under inventory, reduce distribution cost by transport management and streamlining of processes.

Microsoft Dynamics CRM comes with solutions for sales, customer service and marketing. Along with features like leads, opportunity, pipeline management it allows its data to be accessed by the sales team from any web enabled device in real time and analyze it, with in built reports for better decisions. It helps in designing work flows to avoid redundancy, plan and analyze customer data for better services and sales calls. Tracking and importing of data from other sources is easy. Over all this is complete CRM solution for any company.

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Spying Cell Phones and IMEI Codes: The End Of Privacy – Protect Yourself

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If someone has access to your cell phone and IMEI code, for just a few minutes, your life can become an open book! Some spy software is so sophisticated that it records conversations in the vicinity of the phone, even when you are not using it. Text messages that have been erased are easy to get at with inexpensive spy technology. Read on to learn a way to protect yourself from this invasion of privacy and what you should do if you think you are being spied on through your cell phone.

To protect yourself you must understand the basics of this technology and how it works. The spy needs two things: the IMEI code for your phone and software to connect with that code. IMEI stands for International Mobile Equipment Identity and is a number unique to each mobile device. It is found in the battery compartment of each phone and is 15 digits long. There are three places the spy can get the IMEI number:

  1. – From the phone contract. It was on my iPhone 4 contract.
  2. – From the battery case. It was in my iPhone 4 battery compartment.
  3. – By simply dialing #06# on the phone. This worked on my iPhone 4.

Spy cell phone software is inexpensive and available on hundreds of Internet sites. It is easy to install and can be downloaded directly from the Internet to your phone in seconds. The combination of software installed on your phone and the IMEI number make you a sitting duck for any kind of surveillance activity. The spy can now monitor your activities from a home computer or a smart phone. If you have something to hide – beware!

Is the use of this software legal? Yes, if you own the phone. Websites selling these products always have a disclaimer stating that they will not be responsible for illegal uses of the phone while at the same time promoting the software activities that do not appear to be legal. Because the software is undetectable spies are unlikely to be prosecuted.

If you suspect someone may be spying on your cell phone activities, you need to take your phone to your provider and have them clear the memory and restore it to the factory settings. Then guard your phone like it is a credit card that can be used without a password. In other words – don’t share it, even for a minute, with anyone you don’t know and trust.

There are many legitimate uses for the IMEI number and for the spying software and it is unlikely that either will go away. The IMEI number functions like a serial number making it easy to register and ban the resale of stolen phones. Spy software can add provide some security to children and teens while allowing more freedom. Spy software can also be used to find stolen and lost cell phones. As a concerned parent, and a person who sometimes loses his phone, I decided to install spy software on all the family phones.

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Globalization of E-commerce in Business

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 1.0 Introduction

2.0 Literature and theories 3.0 Globalization of E-Commerce in Business 4.0 Research Methodology, Data Collection and Analysis 5.0 Future Research 6.0 Conclusion 7.0 References


1.0    Introduction

This paper examines how globalization of e-commerce is impacting business in general. With the increase of internet-based technologies, it has been the reason for recent stimulus globalization. In this Information Age, Internet commerce is a powerful tool in the economic growth of developing countries. While there are indications of ecommerce patronage among large firms in developing countries, there seems to be little and negligible use of the Internet for commerce among small and medium sized firms. E-commerce ensures better business in the SMEs and sustainable development of economics for developing countries. However, this is based on strong political will and good governance with a responsible and supportive private sector within an effective policy framework. As we know the complete definition of E-commerce is the use of electronic communications and digital information processing technology in business transactions to create, transform, and redefine relationships for value creation between or among organizations, and between organizations and individuals. E-commerce allows companies to increase their sales in domestic and foreign operations and the flexibility afforded by the technology also provides less costly opportunities to locate operations strategically. E-commerce not only reduces communication costs, but also increases flexibility in locating activities. Research point indicates that internet technology has led to an increase in international trade (Freund and Weinhold, 2002, 2004). This is the evidence of how it suggests profits from foreign operations have also increased in recent years (Hilsenrath, 2005). In the emerging global economy, e-commerce has increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy being a strong catalyst for economic development. Integration of information and communications technology (ICT) in business has evolved the relationships within organizations and those between and among organizations and individuals. The controversial current social and economic trends are globalization and the widespread adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Many argue that these two trends are closely associated, each driving the other forward, and both being driven by other common forces, such as trade liberalization, deregulation, migration, and the expansion of capitalism and democracy (c.f., Held et al., 1999). Pohjola (2002) argues that the twin forces of globalization and the ICT revolution are combining to create the so-called New Economy, marked by higher rates of economic and productivity growth. „Technology is both driven by and a driver of globalization, as both forces continually reinforce one another“ cited by (Bradley et al., 1993).Specifically,the use of ICT for ecommerce in business has enhanced productivity, encouraged greater customer participation, and enabled mass customization, besides reducing costs.Prior to development in the Internet and Web-based technologies, the distinctions between traditional markets and the global electronic marketplace-such as business capital size, among others-are gradually being narrowed down. Strategic positioning is the ability of a company to determine emerging opportunities and utilize the necessary human capital skills (such as intellectual resources) to make the most of these opportunities through an e-business strategy which is simple, workable and practicable within the context of a global information and new economic environment. Together with the appropriate strategy and policy approach with e-commerce enables small and medium scale enterprises to compete with large capital-rich businesses. On another plane, developing countries are given increased access to the global marketplace, where they compete with and complement of the more developed economies. Most of the developing countries are already participating in e-commerce, either as sellers or buyers. However, to facilitate e-commerce growth in these countries based on globalization phenomenal, the relatively under-developed information infrastructure must be improved. Significantly, economic trend of the past decade is the growing use of the Internet for conducting business. Many firms are being driven toward greater adoption of e-commerce by pressure to compete at the global level. The Internet and e-commerce are part of the process of globalization. Globalization is generally regarded as the increasing interconnectedness of the world through flows of information, capital, and people facilitated by trade and political openness as well as information technology (IT). „Beyond this, however, the nature and impacts of globalization are highly contested“ cited by (Held et al., 1999). Convergence theorists regard globalization as a universal process of homogenization in which countries tend toward a common way of producing and organizing economic life with resulting common social outcomes (Bell, 1973; Ohmae, 1990, 1995). Divergence theorists argue that national diversity in the pursuit of differing social and economic outcomes will prevail and prevent convergence from taking place (Berger & Dore, 1996; Boyer, 1996; Hirst & Thompson, 1996;Wade, 1996). Transformation theorists regard globalization as an uneven process involving elements of both convergence and divergence, in which countries around the world are experiencing a process of profound change as they try to adapt to a more interconnected but uncertain world (Giddens, 1991, 2000). Globalization is being intensified by the spread of the Internet, linking businesses and individuals around the world into a common electronic network. There is great excitement about the Internet’s potential for removing geographical obstacles to economic growth and for achieving global integration in developing as well as in industrialized countries. A related concern is that uneven diffusion of e-commerce and the Internet is creating a „digital divide“ and exacerbating the gap between rich and poor countries referred by Norris, 2001. Therefore, we are interested broadly in understanding the extent to which the Internet and e-commerce are diffusing among different countries, and the nature of their impacts on the globalization debate. However, in this article, we focus more narrowly on identifying the key factors shaping e-commerce diffusion globally in business. This paper examines that global forces such as competition and global production networks are common influences across different countries. Global forces are varied and uneven due to national characteristics such as information infrastructure, business innovation/entrepreneurship and consumer preferences and national policies that create different market and telecommunications regimes—variously driving, facilitating or inhibiting adoption (Boyer, 1996; Wade, 1996;Dedrick & Kraemer, 1998). With reference to International Data Corp (IDC) that estimates the value of global e-commerce in 2000 at US$ 350.38 billion. This is projected to climb to as high as US$3.14 trillion by 2004. IDC also predicts an increase in Asia’s percentage share in worldwide e-commerce revenue from 5% in 2000 to 10% in 2004 (See Figure 1 – Worldwide E-Commerce Revenue, 2000-2004). Asia-Pacific e-commerce revenues are projected to increase from $76.8 billion at year-end of 2001 to $338.5 billion by the end of 2004. Overall, this research makes several contribution, data collection primarily had been done in this paper to analyze on how globalization of e-commerce will benefits business moving forward in the future.

 2.0    Literature and Theories 

A review of principal and current literature on e-commerce is to explore the conceptual relationships of how globalization can give an impact to business electronically. Empirically, E‐Commerce generally refers to the use of the internet for buying and selling activities including advertising, invitation to treat negotiation and conclusion of contracts (Rodgers, Yen and Chou, 2002; Chen and McQueen, 2008; Simpson and Docherty, 2004). E‐Commerce adoption globally was first studied from the information systems perspective rather than the business perspective. The early studies identified critical success and failure factors on implementation of information systems studies on e‐commerce adoption in business with specific geographic focus became popular in the last decade. Studies was conducted on worldwide firms such as Cisco Systems, Dell Computer and General Electric report impressive payoffs by making the Internet a key element in their strategies and business models, and by transforming their „brick-and-mortar“ operations into e-commerce organizations. Cisco Systems and Dell Computer report in excess of 250% return on invested capital and over USD 650,000 in revenue per employee from their e-commerce operations. They had generated the highest gross profit margin in their respective industries. From a survey finding of over 400 information technology managers worldwide, relative to larger firms, smaller businesses who make effective use of Internet opportunities may also find that they are more innovative, faster in responding to environmental demands, and better able to quickly change or adapt business models to gain competitive advantage (Engler 1999). As a result, traditional firms, especially small organizations, are under increasing pressure to follow suit, and to achieve the often-cited benefits of e-commerce. Electronic commerce or e-commerce describes the use of electronic means and platforms to conduct a company’s business quoted by Kotler, 2003. Electronic commerce, also known as e-commerce, is more specific than e-business, it means that in addition to providing information to visitors about the company, its history, policies, products, and job opportunities, the company or site offers to transact or facilitate the selling of products and services online cited by Kotler 2003. Ecommerce is the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically with computerized business transactions using the Internet, networks, and other digital technologies referred by Laudon and Laudon, 2005. E-commerce (EC) builds on the structures of traditional commerce by adding the flexibility offered by electronic networks. Existing research points out that EC can offer readily discerned benefits in comparison to traditional environments through reduced transaction costs and search costs, more competitive product prices (Bakos 1991) and improved transaction efficiency (Srinivasan, Kekre and Mukhopadhyay 1994; Lee and Clark 1996). In the e-commerce research literature, greater levels of e-commerce adoption have been linked with improved organizational performance (Kraemer, Gibbs and Dedrick, 2002). Companies that adopt internet technology in various activities are aware of this benefit and hope to improve competitive advantage, communication, and products and services when they adopt e-commerce (Berrill, Goode and Hart, 2004). Diffusions of Innovation theory (Rogers, 1995) has been used as a basis for exploring e-commerce adoption in multiple studies. Diffusion is defined as the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time (Rogers, 1995). In relation to e-commerce adoption, the adoption of and the success in e-commerce has been tied to organizations‟ risk acceptance and tolerance of uncertainty (Featherman and Pavlou, 2003; Gibbs, Kraemer and Dedrick, 2003) It is important for businesses moving to the business to-business e-Commerce sector to evaluate all aspects of their organization and performance. Based on business need,the factors which will determine successful transformation, and then direct strategy and resources towards those factors.

The literature on e-Commerce adoption by businesses suggests that most research is based on four frameworks:

(1) The diffusion of innovation .

(2) The Technology-Organization-Environment Model

(3) Institutional theory

(4) Resource-based theory

3.0    Globalization of E-commerce in Business

Globalization of the buying behavior refer to organizations which are are open to suppliers from outside the local country.This type of organization are willing to consider foreign suppliers for the goods and services required for their business. Globalization of buying behavior could be highly global in which almost all the requirements of a particular category of goods and services which are sourced from abroad. It cannot be global at all with all services and goods being procured from within the home country as well as various other intermediate possibilities. There are few factors impacting globalization of e-commerce in business. In countries national environment perspective, we investigate each element and how it determines e-commerce diffusion across countries globally:-

1. Population and Demographic

With reference to (Table 1 –Demographic Overview and Urbanization)) and Table 2 (Population) below cited by W. Koenig, R.T. Wigand and R. Beck (2003); what we can summarized is that the German age distribution leans toward an aging population (Table 1) below. The number of inhabitants in Germany, and Europe, will continue to decrease until 2010, whereas in the U.S the population is increasing. In terms of consumer buying and the growth of the Web economy, the proportion of the relevant age group of 15-49 year olds, will decline quoted by [Zerdick et al., 2001]. Prior to (Table 2 – Forecast of Population Changes to 2010) as below, Table 2 shows that Germany’s population will decline in this decade to approximately 78 million inhabitants. A lower population base means fewer consumers and, together with the aging phenomenon, fewer employees in the working age range. As a consequence, the use of e-commerce services and consumption may increase in Germany as well-educated people retire and are likely to experience physical difficulties in moving around.

2. Economy (Gross Domestic Product, GDP)

„Germany is deeply integrated in the global economy“ cited from W. Koenig, R.T. Wigand, and R. Beck (2003). In recent years, however, the conditions for national political actions changed fundamentally due to globalization of markets, and will continue to change. For e-commerce, these changes imply that an open market exists for firms to hire employees. However, firms face legal requirements because of the formal representation of employees, typically through unions. German unions take on a considerably stronger role in a firm’s well being compared to the U.S. Economic output in the U.S is growing rapidly, in spite of the lower economic output in Europe, led to a higher GDP in the U.S. in 1998. Germany was not able to pick up based on upward trend like the U.S. New consumer and investment indices predict a decline for 2001 and the first half of 2002. Refer to (Table 7-Average GDP growth 19915- 2001 for Germany) as above shows the average growth in GDP each year from 1995 to 2001.

6 principles to Guide the Development of Global E-Commerce in Business:

a) Adopt cautious approach to regulation: Allow global e-commerce a period of time to develop before determining which areas will require government action.

Two major threats to global ecommerce. One is to impose legal and regulatory frameworks before gaining a full understanding of the issues and needs involved. Cross border business-to consumer transactions represent a brand new form of trade; the old ways of regulating trade will not work on the Internet. Innovative solutions ranging from international treaties to online dispute resolution may be able to meet the goals of regulation— mitigating the risks to buyers and sellers. Global e-commerce faces many barriers including language, currency, and cultural differences; overseas shipping costs; and national brand identification. If nothing is done, the tendency will be for e-commerce to only happen into local zones, with consumers visiting only sites in their own country or a small number of countries with which they feel comfortable. In order to realize fully the benefits of global e-commerce, governments must help where necessary to reduce the risks of cross border transactions, but it will take time to determine when and where government action can be used effectively.

b) Increase global market access: Maximize opportunities for buyers and sellers to come together in marketplace

Empowering consumers and sellers—especially small enterprises—by expanding market access should be the main goal of any government action (or forbearance of action) regarding global e-commerce. A larger market lower the marginal costs associated with running Internet based businesses, allowing the companies to spread their fixed costs over more customers, which lowers prices. E-commerce will become more efficient and less costly by gaining global economies of scale. Greater market access also gives small entrepreneurial ventures a better chance at success. Low cost access to global markets is especially important for ventures in developing nations, which can use the power of global e-commerce to „leapfrog“ their economic development efforts and sell to an array of wealthier consumers. Second, a global Internet provides consumers with global choice. Automated buyer agents that seek out the best price on a given item are increasing in popularity and promise to bring tremendous efficiency to the pricing of goods and services on the Internet. Expanding from national to international, will encourage competition and reduce prices. Greater market access gives all of these businesses in whatever country they happen to be located, a better chance at success, and gives consumers of all nations a broader choice of goods and services. Finally, as the infrastructure and systems to facilitate global e-commerce develop, access will also be increased in a more important market: the marketplace of ideas.

c) Don’t use regulations for protectionism: With the World Trade Organization

(WTO) or other multilateral trade agreements – should not be allowed to impose rules on e-commerce or the Internet with the intent of reducing online foreign competition.

Practice of protecting domestic producers through the use of seemingly unrelated regulations is an old one, but the growth of global e-commerce presents the opportunity to take it to a new level. The complexities of the technology, the legal issues involved, and the innovative business relationships between companies that conduct and facilitate ecommerce all lend themselves to regulations protecting domestic industries not only from foreign competitors, but from electronic commerce itself. As global e-commerce grows, the WTO will see more disputes about regulations aimed at the Internet and designed to give advantage to domestic industries. Examples include requiring Web sites to be delivered in the country’s native language, requiring transactions to occur in the country’s currency, requiring certain licenses or certifications to operate or use electronic equipment within the country, or requiring the use of nonstandard security protocol. The fear of the local government that a country is being left behind in the new world economy. The initial lead that the United States holds in e-commerce will create political controversies in other countries that are ripe for the use of nationalism as a tool to gain competitive advantage, or at least slow the incursion of foreign e-commerce to allow domestic industries to catch up: an electronic version of the McDonald’s controversy in France. Countries that use such tactics might gain in the short run, but over the long run they will limit their standard of living and hinder global e-commerce.

d) Enforce regulations domestically: Governments cannot impose their laws on foreign companies unless those companies target their activities within the government’s territory or a treaty is in effect.

In the off-line world, activities engaged in by citizens of one country don’t normally affect the

citizens of another country unless those activities are specifically aimed at them (such as sending international mail). An online business based in one country cannot be expected to comply with the laws of other countries—such as privacy regulations or marketing restrictions—merely because their Web site is accessible in other countries. On the other hand, if the Internet seller targets its goods or services to citizens of another country, that seller should be prepared to comply with the laws of that country. Targeting must subject a seller to the targeted country’s jurisdiction in order to prevent companies from relocating offshore to avoid local laws, a situation that would encourage the rise of cyber-havens. A government cannot exercise authority in another country when „reach out“, but it can exercise authority if someone in another country „reaches in“ to consumers in its jurisdiction.

e) Limit restrictions on social, cultural and political content: Government restrictions

on content cannot block trade in violation of World Trade Organization principles and must be enforced only within the restricting government’s territory.

Given the wide variety of objectionable material available on the Internet, it is no surprise that some governments may seek to keep their citizens from accessing some content. These issues go to the very heart of national sovereignty. In the United States, where the constitutional guarantee of free speech has become ingrained in the culture, public sentiment is likely to come down on the side of more freedom, but the United States cannot impose that sentiment on other sovereign nations. Policies for global e-commerce should not be used as bargaining levers for these non-economic disputes over freedom and human rights; if Internet technology is made to bear responsibility for intractable social and political disagreements, it will not succeed. The first is that such controls must apply only to cultural, social, and political content, not trade. Nations that are signatories to the WTO have agreed to a set of principles to facilitate international trade and to a process for resolving disputes. Claims of cultural or political infringement should not be used as a back door method of discrimination against imports. If a country restricts global e-commerce on grounds A government cannot „reach out“ and exercise authority in another country, but it can exercise authority if someone in another country „reaches in“ to consumers in its jurisdiction. The second condition is that all content controls must be implemented domestically. In keeping with Principle above, governments cannot „reach out“ to shut down Internet operators that reside outside of their jurisdiction. Governments must control content through laws and regulations that apply to their own citizens, such as requiring Internet Service Providers to filter certain content or punishing individual users for downloading prohibited content. Of course, exercising control over every citizen’s Internet behavior, while technically possible requires control over the technology and communications infrastructure that only a few governments are likely to exercise.10 Inherent in the spread of Internet technology and the attendant economic benefits is a realization that the more time citizens spend in cyberspace, the less control their governments will have over them. This is why expansion of global e-commerce must be balanced with respect for sovereignty; if a government feels that the trade-off between commerce and social stability is not in its interest, the former is more likely to be rejected.

g) Take advantage of technology: Encourage innovation in the development of technological tools and industry best practices that solve public policy problems.

The Internet lends itself to creative solutions to policy problems precisely because software is a powerful tool to give people the ability to manage their own transactions. Many technological solutions are being developed to facilitate an efficient and trusted environment for both buyers and sellers. This consumer-empowering technology, when fully implemented, may help alleviate the desire for strict government controls on data privacy practices and facilitate easier negotiation between nations with different privacy regimes. Technology promises other solutions as well, in areas from language translation to content control to dispute resolution Policymakers should turn to technology whenever possible and, more importantly, they should think in terms of what technology could do in the future rather than what it can do now. In order to facilitate the growth of global ecommerce,

Policy Recommendations has been discussed and propose:-:

• stay within the current international trade framework;

• make the moratorium on tariffs for electronic transmissions permanent;

• treat digitally delivered products as intangible goods;

• eliminate tariffs on small-value transactions;

• work with third parties seeking to provide solutions;

• promote consumer education efforts; and

• draft and enact global treaties governing criminal activity on the Internet.

Some Opinions on speeding up the development of e-Commerce, in which the Government decided to take measures in six areas:

1. legal environment,

2. supporting industries,

3. enterprise information,

4. technical support,

5. education

6. international co-operation

4.0    Research Methodology/ Data Collection and Analysis

Research methodology

I had been adopting primary and secondary market research data to reinforce the statement of „Globalization of e-commerce in Business“. The approach adopted is based on empirical research and analysis about the ongoing and foreseeable influence of various factors on e-commerce diffusion.

Data Collection and Analysis

Primary research data were collected through a structure questionnaire via online survey tool to answer the research questions. The objective is to determine the people acceptance on buying or selling behavior and pattern if they could accept e-commerce as the way that could contribute to business prior to globalization. The online survey was only sent to different age group level and different gender as we could analyzed through the pattern of acceptance based on various level. Total 72 responses sizes were received with each responses received was screened through for errors, incomplete and view only responses. However, 60 responses were considered complete and effective for data analysis. Respondent can be analyzed from the Summary Report – Mar 26, 2011 (Survey: Globalization of E-Commerce in Business – refer as attached). Total out of the total respondents 60% were males and 40% were females. Among the respondents only 1.7% were under 18 years old, 5% from 18 to 24 years old range, 56.7% informed that their age is belong to 25-34 age group, 35% is from 35-54 years old and finally 1.7% is from age above 55 years old. In term of working status, 3.3% is student, 3.3% is self-employed, 5% has their own business, 85% is working in Professional or Corporate bodies and 3.3% is not working. Regarding usage of internet everyday, 98.3% uses internet everyday and 1.7% is not based on total responses of 58 persons. Based on hours of internet login per-day with total responses of 57 persons, (3.5% login < 1 hour; 36.8% between 1-4 hours; 19.3% login < 6 hours and 40.4% states that they login >12 hours). In term of type of connection, (1.8% uses Cable/LAN; 15.8% is on ADSL/DSL; 14% uses Fiber optic (Unifi); 1.8% is on dial-up and majority with 66.7% respondents uses broadband/mobile/wireless internet).In term of location of login to the internet ( 43.6% login thru home; 50.9% login thru work or office; 3.6% login in hotspot area and 1.8% states they login thru internet café with total responses to this question is 55 persons). Prior to years of login to the internet ( 8.8% only uses internet service since 1-5 years; 36.8% is from 5 – 10 years and 54.4% uses internet more than 10 years with total responses of 57 persons). Total of 96.4% of respondents heard of e-commerce with 3.6% never at all (Total response is 56 persons). In term of visiting to e-commerce website with total response of 56 person: 89.3% states they had before and 10.7% indicates never. Buying or selling thru websites with total responses of 54 persons, 83.3% responded YES and 16.7% had answered NO. Those who responded YES with total response of 48 person, 29.2% say that they had buy or sell one week ago, 25% states one month ago, 35.4% indicates half a year ago and 10.4% states one year ago. Another questions about if they have an option to buy from local store or website (Total response is 55 person : 63.6% responded – Yes; 36.4% states – NO). 50% will still buy thru online/website and 50% thru local store even the price remain the same. Total of 83.6%  says that they trust e-commerce website with only 16.4% indicates no (Total response is 55 persons). In terms of motivation of buy and sell thru e-commerce website, total respondent of 56 persons; 7.1% believe that detail and sufficient product information motivates them; 7.1% sates privacy and security; 48.2% response is because of convenience and save time; 1.8% is due to customer review availability; 5.4% is because of promotion and advertisement; 8.9% is due to product price and quality comparison and 21.4% response is due to variety of global product). The main focus is on the response if e-commerce will be the way to move forward in doing business globally, (Total response of 56 person: 96.4% responded YES and 3.6% say NO).  In term of how they got to know e-commerce (Total response of 56 person: 8.9% is thru email/newsletter; 14.3% from friend; 48.2% is thru search engine; 25% is through social network and 3.6% is from newspaper or magazines. How will they rate browsing experience with total respondent of 56 person: 1.8% rate worst; 1.8% indicate bad; 26.8% stays neutral, 69.6% responded good. Finally, in term of rating experience of buying and selling through website with total response of 51 persons, 2% say worst, 19.6% remain neutral and 78.4% rate good. Prior to all the result of data collected and analyzed, the statistical result shown clearly indicates majority of the people agreed and even had experienced with trust to e-commerce that it is the way which will impact in business prior to globalization. 

Secondary research data is use based on detailed case studies by scholars and experts in 10 countries to explore which factors in the framework appear to be playing a role at this early stage of e-commerce in each country. I compared the results of these case studies across the countries on each of the factors and found that some factors were important influences on adoption across countries and some were not. Identifying the commonalities and differences among the countries, determined which factors were barriers and drivers to ecommerce, and assessed whether these findings pointed to convergence or divergence in the factors shaping diffusion and, ultimately, suggested convergence or divergence in ecommerce outcomes. This article presents as well the results from this cross-case analysis based on secondary research. (FIGURE 2 –E-commerce sales as % GDP with GDP per capita, 2000). Sources cited by IDC (2002), ITU (2001). The 10 countries in the study—Brazil, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Mexico, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States were selected to include developed, newly industrializing, and developing nations, and to represent each major region of the world. Two types of data related to the countries are discussed in the article: (1) qualitative data, or findings, from the in-depth case studies prepared by scholars and experts in each country, and (2) statistical data compiled from the cases and secondary sources (IDC, ITU, UNDP, OECD) that enable cross-country comparison. (FIGURE 2 –E-commerce sales as % GDP with GDP per capita, 2000) illustrates this relationship between e-commerce sales as percent of GDP and 8 J. GIBBS ET AL. GDP per capita, with our 10 countries of focus in boldface type. The United States and Japan stand out as leaders in both e-commerce and GDP per capita. China, Brazil, and Mexico are lagging behind, while the other five countries fall somewhere in the middle. Furthermore, some countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, the United States, and Japan fall „above“ the line, meaning that their e-commerce sales are higher than would be expected based on GDP alone. Other countries, namely, Denmark and France, fall „below“ the line, meaning that their e-commerce sales are lower than would be predicted by the country’s wealth. Wealth alone does not provide a complete explanation of national differences in e-commerce adoption based on the data collected and analyzed. The initial findings from the cross-case analysis suggest that other factors do have an important impact on e-commerce adoption, especially factors of the global environment and national environment and, to a lesser extent, national policy.

5.0    Future research

Looking into the future research, we will need to get the academic experts to develop a common research protocol, conduct country and international analyses, and share findings at annual meetings, forum, comparison of research data and how Globalization of e-commerce will have an effect to either the growth or decline in business. Research protocol was developed to achieve multiple objectives on our findings. Initial objective was to develop a team culture to facilitate knowledge development and sharing of ideas. Second, a common survey instrument had need to be developed that to diverse the economies impact to Asia, Americas and Europe.Moreover, it had to be translated into multiple languages, independently checked and piloted in each country. Third, we had to collect secondary data that was comparable across countries with which to better understand their socio-economic environments and e-commerce diffusion over time, as a way of providing perspective for our cross-sectional survey. Finally, to complement both the Global E-Commerce survey, the secondary research data  is needed as to obtain a granular understanding of the Internet and e-commerce within each country. Individual country case studies is needed for each country, including specific industries and/or firms to see how EC evolved in business globally. These case studies usually were written by local academics experts.Development of several partnerships to carry out this work is necessary. First was our partnership with the academic experts in each country who signed on for the four-year effort. Second was a partnership with the International Data Corporation (IDC) of Framingham, MA. This International bodies will govern to develop the survey questionnaire, secure translations into multiple languages, check the questionnaire translations with their in-country staff, oversee conduct of the survey by the international survey firm, market probe and review the survey results. IDC should bee chosen for future research because it has experience working in many countries, conducts its own surveys in several countries, and has experts in e-commerce in each of the countries in this study. Partnership with Empirica, GMBH in Germany is also needed from the aspect of Europe nation for data and analysis related to projects sponsored by the European Commission’s Information Society Technologies (IST) Directorate General. This European nation bodies will help to provided additional data useful for special firm-level, cross country analyses that complemented the basic Globalization of Ecommerce analyses that covers a wider aspect mainly the impact to business.

 6.0    Conclusions

In conclusion to this research that I had embarked, this paper has found useful way of organizing the key factors influencing e-commerce diffusion which will need to be by more quantitative analyses in the future, primary and secondary data is needed to conclude of how e-commerce could impact the business growth globally. There is specific factors shaping the e-commerce that vary considerably. For Global e-commerce especially (business-to-business) model competitive forces are the greatest driver of adoption. Global competition and participation in global production networks create strong pressure to adopt e-commerce. Global competitive pressure is driving greater convergence in business practices through global integration of production networks and supply chains. Countries which are more open to such forces whether through international trade, trade liberalization, or foreign investment will more likely move toward higher e-commerce diffusion. As for Business-to-Commerce) model diffusion seems to be less affected by global forces and more affected by variables specific to the national and local environment, such as consumer preferences, retail structure, and local language and cultural factors. Findings from this research states that consumer preference for valuable content and concerns for security and privacy are the most significant factors. Prior to the converging around the world, country preferences for local content, culture and language  really differ significantly thus shaping e-commerce adoption across globally. This paper examines that the preliminary explanation for this difference is that B2B is driven by MNCs (Multi National companies) that „push“ e-commerce to their global suppliers, customers, and their own subsidiaries. This will create the pressures on local companies to adopt e-commerce to stay competitive. Business practices become more standardized across borders in practice. Business education and imitation of best practices reinforce this convergence; as new innovation occurs in theory or practice in order to be competitive. In term of all consumers who really desire on convenience and enjoy low prices, consumer preferences and values, national culture, and distribution systems differ markedly across countries and define differences in local consumer markets. This distinction between B2B and B2C e-commerce as a global phenomenon has important implications. Theoretically, it gives support to the transformational perspective, which sees globalization as involving elements of both convergence and divergence. A country’s position in the global economy is largely dependent on location, labor cost, or other endowments, so that the impacts of B2B e-commerce may be limited Although Internet-based e-commerce is still in its infancy stage, this preliminary research indicates that its diffusion is an uneven process across countries and industries: certain countries and industries are driving the process while others lag behind. Moreover, despite the presence of global forces shaping diffusion, local differences in the factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are evident between countries, suggesting that the diffusion process is indeed shaped by national environments and policy rather than taking a universal trajectory. These findings imply that though Globalization of e-commerce in business is the way to move forward in future but it is not the factors of growth in economy or business performance of the  country. It has never been the same approach to adopt the diffusion of e-commerce across all countries in the world. There is so many elements and factors need to be taken into consideration. Therefore, more study is needed across all countries continuously over a period of 5 years to observe how e-commerce could shape the country economy and how it impact business performance in different industries of the country. This research also imply that future studies should focus on modeling the survey quantitatively to cross-reference check on empirical research done as to compare their relationship across all countries in the world.

7.0 References

1. Bakos, Y. „A Strategic Analysis of Electronic Marketplaces,“ MIS Quarterly, Volume 15, No. 3, September 1991, pp. 295-310.

2. Bell, D. 1973. The coming of post-industrial society. New York: Basic Books.

3. Berrill, A., Goode, S. & Hart, D. (2004). Managerial expectations of internet commerce adoption after the „Tech Wreck‟. Journal of Global Information Technology Manage-ment, 07(03), 45-63.

4. Bradley, Stephen P., Jerry A. Hausman, & Richard L. Nolan, editors. 1993. Globalization,Technology, and Competition. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

5. Berger, S., and Dore, R., eds. 1996. National diversity and global capitalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

6. Boyer, R. 1996. The convergence hypothesis revisited: Globalizationbut still the century of nations? In National diversity and global capitalism, eds. S. Berger and R. Dore, pp. 29–59. Ithaca,NY: Cornell University Press.

7. Dedrick, J., and Kraemer, K. L. 1998. Asia’s computer challenge:Threat or opportunity for the United States and the world? New York: Oxford University Press.

8. Empirica. 2001. Stand und Entwicklungsperspektiven des elektronischen Geschäftsverkehrs in Deutschland, Europa und den U.S. unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nutzung in KMU in 1999 und 2001  (E-commerce in SMEs in Germany, Europe and the U.S.). Bonn, Germany (last access: 04/02(2002)

9. Engler, N. (1999), „Small but Nimble“, Information Week, January 18, 57-62.

10. Featherman MS, Pavlou PA (2003). Predicting e-Services Adoption: A Perceived Risk Facets Perspective. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 59(1): 451-474.

11. Freund, C.L. and D. Weinhold. 2004. The effect of the internet on international trade. Journal of International Economics 62: 171-189.

12. Gibbs, Jennifer, Kenneth L. Kraemer, & Jason Dedrick. Forthcoming, 2003. Environment and Policy Factors Shaping E-Commerce Diffusion: A Cross-Country Comparison. The Information Society, 19(1).

13. Giddens, A. 1991. Modernity and self-identity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

14. Giddens, A. 2000. Runaway World: How globalization is reshaping our lives. New York: Routledge.

 15. Hilsenrath, J. 2005. „U.S. Multinationals Reap Overseas bounty,“ The Wall Street Journal, April 4, 2005.

 16. Held, David, Anthony McGrew, David Goldblatt, & Jonathan Perraton. 1999. Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

 17. Hirst, P., and Thompson, G. 1996. Globalization in question: The international economy and the possibilities of governance. Cambridge: Polity Press.

 18. Koenig, W., Wigand, R. T., Beck, R. (2002). Globalization and E-Commerce: Environment and Policy in Germany, in: Communication of the Association for Information Systems, Volume 10,Association for Information Systems Atlanta, USA

19. Kotler.P. 2003. Marketing Insights from A to Z Canada. John Wiley and Sons, INC

 20. Laudon, K.C. & Laudon, J.P. (2005). Management Information Systems (9th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

21. Lee, H. G. and T. H. Clark: „Economic Benefits and Adoption Barriers of Electronic Market Systems“, Ninth International EDI-IOS Conference, Bled, Slovenia, 1996.

22. International Data Corporation. 2002. Internet commerce market model, version 8.1. Framingham, MA: IDC.

23. International Telecommunications Union. 2001. Yearbook of statistics, 1991–2000. Geneva: ITU.

24. Ohmae, K. 1990. The borderless world: Power and strategy in the interlinked economy. New York: Harper Perennial.

25. Ohmae, K. 1995. The end of the nation state. New York: Free Press.

26. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2001.OECD communications outlook 2001. Paris: OECD.

27. Pohjola, Matti. 2002. The New Economy: Facts, Impacts and Policies. Information Economics and Policy, 14: 133-144.

28. Rodgers, J. A.; Yen, D. C.; Chou, D. C. 2002. Developing e-business: a strategic approach, Information Management & Computer Security 10(4): 184–92.doi:10.1108/09685220210436985

29. Rogers, Everett. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. Fourth edition. New York, NY: The Free Press.

30. Srinivasan, K., Kekre, S., Mukhopadhyay, T. „Impact of electronic data interchange Technology support on JIT shipments,“ Management Science, (40:10), 1994, pp. 1291–1304

31. Wade, R. 1996. Globalization and its limits: Reports of the death of the national economy are greatly exaggerated. In National diversity and global capitalism, eds. S. Berger and R. Dore, pp. 60–88. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

32. Zerdick, A., et al. 2001. Die Internet-Ökonomie: Strategien für die Digitale Wirtschaft, 3. Edition. Springer Verlag Berlin

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Organizational Psychology in Human Resource Management

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Organizational Psychology is a subject which applies the principles of psychology into one of the most important areas of people’s life – work. Specifically, we work with the human aspects of the workplace and aim at improving people’s efficiency, and hence organizational effectiveness, through our knowledge about human functioning.

There exist a group of professionals who share a similar aim and are working closely with us, the human resource professionals. Despite the close relationship with HR professionals, Organizational Psychologists are distinctive professionals. Unfortunately, there is always some confusion among the general public that people just cannot tell who is who. More importantly, even some HR professionals do not know what we are doing and what can we offer them.

When we tell them we are Psychologists, a frequent reply is „but we don’t have any mental problems“!

As Organizational Psychologists, we work with a wide range of domains that are related to people’s everyday work life. We design work activities, schedules and workplaces; we design reward principles that are based on human motivation theories; we develop training principles and train the trainers; we develop selection procedures and tools; we formulate performance appraisal systems; and we advise on organizational development issues as well as career development decisions.

As you may recognise, our work reaches every working individual on the planet and our working field is very closely related with the work of HR professionals.

Although there are quite a few overlapping areas between Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management (HRM), there are fundamental differences between us.

The first and perhaps the most obvious difference between us is the knowledge foundation. As psychologists, we base our work heavily on science. All work has to be backed up by scientific evidence and statistics is always in our toolbox.

In contrast, HRM is essentially a business study which emphasizes more on the practical side, with less focus on the scientific side. Moreover, in addition to working on overlapping areas, we work on different levels. Organizational Psychologists focus more on the design and development of procedures, tools and principles while HR professionals work more on the operational level, such as implementation of selection systems and applying training principles in real training scenarios.

The discrepancy between the knowledgebase of Organizational Psychologists and HR professionals has been documented in academic journals.

For example Sally Carless and colleagues pointed out that although there are important advancements in HR-related research, the everyday HR practice have benefited from it to a minimum level. They found that this is due to the lack of knowledge among HR professionals, especially when the training of the HR professionals emphasizes on general skill and knowledge in favour of science.

In contrast, the training of Organizational Psychologists is built upon the scientist-practitioner model which emphasizes on both research and practical skills and stipulates that practice must be supported by scientific evidence.

Another reason may lie in the Continuous Professional Development (CPD) requirement. As Organizational Psychologists, CPD is a statutory condition for registration and this helps them to keep updated with the latest developments in the field. However there is no such requirement for HR professionals. Carless’s study confirmed that Organizational Psychologists are experts in the field, especially in the area of selection and the authors articulated that „scientific integrity is a key differentiating feature of I/O (Organizational) psychologists.“

Having closely related working areas, our work is actually complementary to each other. Without Organizational Psychologists in the design and development work of various HR processes and tools, the HR professional would not be enjoying these scientific and highly effective products.

On the other hand, without the help of HR professionals we could never apply our work to such a broad range of people. Moreover, our relationship is much more complex and interactive than one might be aware of. Besides the above mentioned supplier-user relationship, HR professionals are also partners, advisors and sometimes suppliers for Organizational Psychologists.

HR professionals are our partners in projects where we provide them with the technical skills and knowledge while they take care of the operational part. Furthermore, HR professionals are experts of their company; therefore we work side by side during consulting jobs where we need them to assist us with internal matters as well as providing us with an insider view.

More importantly, as HR professionals are frequent users of our services and products, we rely a lot on their opinions and requests in developing our products and services. They are also providers of valuable data and participants for us to carry out scientific studies (e.g. validation of assessment tools). All in all, we are inter-dependent parties with entwined relationships rather than independent parties or competitors.

Being Organizational Psychologists, what can we offer to HR professionals? A lot. With the expertise in assessing human characteristics and knowledge about human performance, we are experts in selection.

Based on the understanding about the requirements of the job as well as the characteristics needed for any particular position, we can come up with an ideal person profile that the organization is looking for. Then we can design, or choose among proper tools that accurately measure the required characteristics, knowledge and skills.

According to research these procedures enable us to create the best selection system which predicts future performance of the employed staff. One should not be surprised that the best selection tools like psychometric tests, assessment centres, and structured interviews as well as standardized selection procedures are all designed and developed by Organizational Psychologists.

Another contribution of the organizational psychology profession to the HR field is in training. A brief look at the training market reveals that it is flooded with many training courses and providers.

Obviously their quality varies and some of them do not even know what they are talking about! Our own company has undertaken work for clients who have come to us after being dissatisfied with trainers who appear to have simply taken some information from the internet to put together a training session without any real understanding of the subject matter!

As Organizational Psychologists we are working hard to turn around this situation. We are experts in training design; some understand how people learn and how people learn the best! In designing and delivering training courses, scientific human learning theories and training principles are followed, but not just by gut feelings or experience only. Factors like transfer of learning, specific needs of the organization and maintenance of learning are all fully considered.

Besides selection and training, Organizational Psychologists also offer various consultancy and advisory services to HR professionals. The range of work can be as small as reviewing a performance appraisal check list or an assessment centre exercise to as big as designing a tailored selection system.

On top of that, we can also go into the organization to diagnose the roots of problems and solve them accordingly, using our scientific approach and advanced knowledge about mechanisms and dynamics within the workplace.

However, as mentioned at the beginning of this article, one big obstacle we face is the lack of knowledge about our profession within the HR profession (particularly in Asia), as well as the public in general.

The implication is that we often face questions like „what is organizational psychology?“, „what is the difference between Organizational Psychologists and HR consultants?“ and even „why do I need to employ scientific tools and procedures?“ It can be hard work explaining all this to prospective clients! Another related problem is people always think we are very expensive!

But the fact is all the products and services we offer are based on scientific research which means they have undergone lengthy and sophisticated processes of development and the cost of all these are huge. By employing our scientific tools and principles the benefit is long lasting and continuously contributing to the performance of the organization, and these are all documented in the scientific literature.

Another hidden obstacle for us in Asia is caused by the organizational hierarchy. Very often, the first contact point between our clients and ourselves are assistants of HR professionals who have minimal understanding of what we are talking about. When they do not understand they just cannot relay our message precisely to their manager.

The result is obviously that the management level does not receive our message and the name of Organizational Psychology just remains unheard no matter how hard we try!

As Organizational Psychologists, we see a real need to educate the public, and more importantly, HR professionals about the subject of Organizational Psychology so that the fruit of science can be returned to them.

There are major overlapping work areas between Organizational Psychologists and HR professionals such as selection, training, career development and performance management, but we work on different levels and perspectives thus our relationship is actually collaborative rather than competitive.

Organizational Psychologists can offer help to HR professionals in various areas such as training design, development of selection systems, supervising performance management processes and many more. Nevertheless Organizational Psychologists in Asia face obstacles as the subject is relatively unheard of among HR professionals and communication is often blocked by organizational hierarchy.

Therefore one very important task for us as Organizational Psychologist is to promote this subject so that people know what we can offer and make use of our expertise! We are sure that with the growing popularity of the subject, HR professionals, and other related professionals like career counsellors and coaches, will benefit highly from Organizational Psychology.

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How Do I Remove Malware – 2 Simple Ways of Getting Rid of Malware

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One question that a lot of people have is what is malware and if infected, how do I remove malware?

Basically, malware stands for malicious software and consists of numerous kinds of dangerous computer infections like virus, worm, Trojan, adware and spyware. Before you go about removing it, there are certain facts about malware that you must know.

* Most computer owners are unaware of the presence of malware on their PC.

* Malware is extremely harmful as it can steal your personal information like passwords, bank account numbers, social security and credit card numbers.

* Other bad effects of malware include slower system performance, change in original settings, infected registry, fake popups and permanent damage of hard disk files.

Now that you are wondering „how do I remove malware,“ there are essentially two methods of getting rid of malware, including:

1. Find the malware program, processes and files and use the „Add/Remove“ feature to uninstall them.

2. Get an anti spyware tool to remove the malware from your PC.

The first method has to be done manually. If you are not comfortable with the technical part of the process, you should not try to remove malware yourself. This may disrupt the present settings of your PC or even ruin it further. Moreover, malware can mask itself and take different forms. These can only be recognized by experts who can use the manual way to eliminate malware.

A better and easier way to remove malware is to acquire a program that detects and demolishes malware. To find such a software, go online and type ‚how do I remove malware‘ in a search engine. Your search results will show spyware removal tolls that can delete all malware from your computer and keep it clean for a long time to come.

Buying a good spyware remover is the best, easiest and fastest way to get rid of malware and prevent future infections. Don’t waste your time with free versions because these will just bring new malware to your PC.

Invest some money in a reliable spyware removal tool to get effective results. It will also allow you to do unlimited daily scans for Malware, Spyware, Adware, dialers, cookies and keyloggers. Any potential threats will be blocked and the ones present on your system will be deleted within minutes.

The next time you ask yourself ‚how do I remove malware‘, just install a robust spyware remover and leave the rest to it. Its as simple as ABC!

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Accounting Principles – Charles Kelly

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Question 1:

Under generally acceptable accounting principles, it is possible for two companies with identical operating results may not report identical net incomes.

Answer: false

Question 2:

Ratios are used to compare different firms in the same industry.

True- used to compares firm in an industry and also changes over time

Answer: True:

Question 3:

Profitability ratios are distorted by inflation because profits are stated in current dollars and assets and equity are stated in historical dollars.

Answer: True:

Question 4:

A firm with heavy long-term debt can benefit during inflationary times, as debt can be repaid with „cheaper“ dollars.

True- example if a firm borrows 10 million today, this amount is relatively high today, if there is inflation this means prices go up, if there is inflation then this means that this amount will be look small when the firm repays

Answer: True:

Question 5:

Debt utilization ratios are used to evaluate the firm’s debt position with regard to its asset base and earning power.

False- debt utilisation show level of assets financed through debt

Answer: false

Question 6:

The statement of cash flows helps measure how the changes in a balance sheet were financed between two time periods.

Answer: True:

Question 7:

Net working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities.

Working capital = CA – CL

Answer: True:

Question 8:

Depreciation is an accounting entry and does not involve a cash expense.

Answer: True:

Question 9:

Total assets of a firm are financed with liabilities and stockholders equity.

True- finance using debt or equity

Answer: True:

Question 10:

Sales minus operating costs = operating income.

Answer: True:

Question 11:

Shop-Til-You-Drop Inc. recently reported net income of $5.2 million and depreciation of $600,000. What is was net cash flow? (Assume it has no amortization expense.)

Net cash flow = net income + depreciation + amortisation

Net cash flow = 5.2m+0.6m=5.8 million

Answer: 5.8 million

Question 12:

Temple Square Inc. reported that its retained earnings for 2005 were $490,000. In its 2006 financial statements, it reported $60,000 of net income, and it ended 2006 with $510,000 of retained earnings. How much were paid as dividends to shareholders during 2006?

2005 retained earnings = 490,000

2006 net income = 60,000

2006 retained earnings = 510,000

Earnings available for pay out in 2006 = 490,000 + 60,000 = 550,000

If dividends were not paid reined earnings would be 550,000

Dividends = 550,000 – 510,000 = 40,000

Answer 40,000

Question 13:

Fine Breads Inc. paid out $26,000 common dividends during 2005, and it ended the year with $150,000 of retained earnings. The prior year’s retained earnings were $145,500. What was the firm’s 2005 net income?

2004 retained earnings = 145,000

Dividends 2005=26,000

2005 retained earnings = 150,000

Change in retained earnings = 150,000 – 145,000 = 5,000

Net income 2005 = change in retained earnings + dividends

Net income = 5,000 + 26,000 = 31,000

Answer 31,000

Question 14:

Which of the following items is NOT included in current assets?

  1. A. Accounts payable
  2. B. Inventory
  3. C. Accounts receivable
  4. D. Cash
  5. E. Short-term, highly liquid, marketable securities

Answer: Accounts payable

Question 15:

Other things held constant, which of the following actions would increase the amount of cash on a company’s balance sheet?

  1. A. The company issues new common stock.
  2. B. The company repurchases common stock
  3. C. The company pays a dividend.
  4. D. The company purchases a new piece of equipment
  5. E. The company gives customers more time to pay their bills

Answer: The Company issues new common stock.

Question 16:

Miller Metals recently reported $9,000 of sales, $6,000 of operating costs other than depreciation, and $1,500 of depreciation. The company had no amortization charges, it had $4,000 of bonds that carry a 7% interest rate, and its federal-plus-state income tax rate was 40%. What was its net cash flow?

Net cash flow = net income + amortisation + depreciation

Net income = sales – operating costs – depreciation – interest – tax

Net income =9000 – 6000 – 500 – (4,000*7%) – tax

Net income =2500 – 280 – tax

Net income =2220– tax

Tax = 2220*40%=888

Net income =2220– 888=1332

Net cash flow = net income + amortisation + depreciation

Net cash flow = 1332+280+500=2112

Answer: 2112

Question 17:

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

  1. 1. The statement of cash flows shows where the firm’s cash is located, with a listing of all banks and brokerage houses where cash is on deposit.
  2. 2. The statement of cash flows for 2005 shows how much the firm’s cash (the total of currency, bank deposits, and short-term liquid securities, or cash equivalents) increased or decreased during 2005.
  3. 3. The statement of cash flows reflects cash flows from operations and from borrowings, but it does not reflect cash obtained by selling new common stock.
  4. 4. The statement of cash flows reflects cash flows from operations, but it does not reflect the effects of buying or selling fixed assets.
  5. 5. The statement of cash flows reflects cash flows from continuing operations, but it does not reflect the effects of changes in working capital.

Answer: The statement of cash flows for 2005 shows how much the firm’s cash (the total of currency, bank deposits, and short-term liquid securities, or cash equivalents) increased or decreased during 2005.

Question 18:

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

  1. 1. In the statement of cash flows, depreciation charges are reported as a use of cash.
  2. 2. In the statement of cash flows, a decrease in accounts receivable is reported as a use of cash.
  3. 3. In the statement of cash flows, a decrease in inventories is reported as a use of cash.
  4. 4. In the statement of cash flows, a decrease in accounts payable is reported as a use of cash.
  5. 5. Dividends do not show up in the statement of cash flows because dividends are considered to be a financing activity, not an operating activity.

Answer: In the statement of cash flows, a decrease in accounts payable is reported as a use of cash.

Question 19:

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

  1. 1. Depreciation reduces a firm’s cash balance, so an increase in depreciation would normally lead to a reduction in the firm’s net cash flow.
  2. 2. Net cash flow (NCF) is defined as follows:

Net Cash Flow = Net Income + Depreciation and Amortization Charges.

  1. 3. Depreciation and amortization are not cash charges, so neither of them has an effect on a firm’s reported profits.
  2. 4. The more depreciation a firm reports, the higher its tax bill, other things held constant.
  3. 5. People sometimes talk about the firm’s net cash flow, which is shown as the bottom entry on the income statement, as the „bottom line.“

Answer: Net cash flow (NCF) is defined as follows:

Net Cash Flow = Net Income + Depreciation and Amortization Charges.

Question 20:

Last year Aldrin Company’s operations provided a negative net cash flow, yet the cash shown on its balance sheet increased. Which of the following statement could explain the increase in cash, assuming the company’s financial statements were prepared under generally accepted accounting principles?

  1. 1. The company retired a large amount of its long-term debt.
  2. 2. The company repurchased some of its common stock.
  3. 3. The company sold some of its fixed assets.
  4. 4. The company had high depreciation expenses.
  5. 5. The company dramatically increased its capital expenditures.

Answer: The Company repurchased some of its common stock.

Question 21:

Analysts who follow Sierra Nevada Inc. recently noted that, relative to the previous year, the company’s operating net cash flow increased, yet cash as reported on the balance sheet declined. Which of the following factors could explain this situation?

  1. 1. The company sold a division and received cash in return.
  2. 2. The company cut its dividend.
  3. 3. The company made a large investment in a new plant.
  4. 4. The company issued new long-term debt.
  5. 5. The company issued new common stock.

Answer: The Company issued new common stock.

Question 22:

Last year, Owen Technologies reported (1) a negative net cash flow from operations, (2) a negative free cash flow, and (3) an increase in cash as reported on its balance sheet. Which of the following factors could explain this situation?

  1. 1. The company had a sharp increase in its depreciation and amortization expenses.
  2. 2. The company had a sharp increase in its inventories.
  3. 3. The company sold a new issue of common stock.
  4. 4. The company had a sharp increase in its accrued liabilities.
  5. 5. The company made a large capital investment early in the year.

Large investment- reduces free cash flow and net cash flow, investment may have been financed by debt therefore no change in cash

Answer: The Company made a large capital investment early in the year

Question 23:

On its 2004 balance sheet, Sherman Books showed $510 million of retained earnings, and exactly the same amount was shown the following year. Assuming that no earnings restatements were issued, which of the following statements is CORRECT?

  1. 1. The company definitely had zero net income in 2005.
  2. 2. The company must have paid no dividends in 2005.
  3. 3. Dividends could have been paid in 2005, but they would have had to equal the earnings for the year.
  4. 4. If the company lost money in 2005, they must have paid dividends.
  5. 5. The company must have paid out half of its earnings as dividends.

Answer: statement 3: Dividends could have been paid in 2005, but they would have had to equal the earnings for the year.

Question 24:

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

  1. 1. Accounts receivable are reported as a current liability on the balance sheet.
  2. 2. Dividends paid reduce the net income that is reported on a company’s income statement.
  3. 3. If a company uses some of its bank deposits to buy short-term, highly liquid marketable securities, this will cause a decline in its current assets as shown on the balance sheet.
  4. 4. If a company issues new long-term bonds during the current year, this will increase its reported current liabilities at the end of the year.
  5. 5. If a company pays more in dividends than it generates in net income, its retained earnings as reported on the balance sheet will fall.

Answer: Statement 5: If a company pays more in dividends than it generates in net income, its retained earnings as reported on the balance sheet will fall.

Question 25:

Cox Corporation reported EBITDA of $22.5 million and $5.4 million of net income. The company has a $6 million interest expense and its corporate tax rate is 35%. What was Cox’s depreciation and amortization expense?

EBITDA= $22.5 million

Net income =5.4 million

Interest expense=6 million

Corporate tax rate= 35%

Depreciation + amortization=Y

Net income = EBITDA – tax – depreciation – amortisation- interest – tax


Tax expenses = 35% X (EBITDA – interest expenses- Y (depreciation and amortisation)

Tax expenses = 35% X (22.5m – 6m- Y)

Net income = EBITDA – tax – depreciation – amortisation- interest – tax

5.4 = 22.5 – [35% X (22.5 – 6- Y)] – Y- 6

5.4 = 16.5 – [35% X (16.5- Y)] – Y

5.4 = 16.5 – [5.775- 0.35Y] – Y

5.4 = 16.5 – 5.775+ 0.35Y – Y

5.4 = 10.725 + 0.35Y – Y

0.65Y= 5.325

Depreciation and amortization expense =Y= 8.19million

Answer = 8.19 million

Question 26:

Byrd Lumber has 2 million shares of common stock outstanding that sell for $15 a share. If the company has $40 million of common equity, what is the company’s Market Value Added (MVA)?

Market value added = value of the firm in the market – capital invested in the firm

Market value added = (2 million X 15) – 40 million

Market value added = -30,000

Answer: Market value added = -30,000

Question 27:

Hybrid Battery Systems recently reported $9,000 of sales, $6,000 of operating costs other than depreciation, and $500 of depreciation. The company had no amortization charges, it had $4,000 of bonds that carry a 7% interest rate, and its federal-plus-state income tax rate was 40%. In order to sustain its operations and thus generate sales and cash flows in the future, the firm was required to make $800 of capital expenditures on new fixed assets and to invest $500 in net operating working capital. By how much did the firm’s net income exceed its free cash flow?

Net income = sales – operating costs – depreciation – interest – tax

Net income =9000 – 6000 – 500 – (4,000*7%) – tax

Net income =2500 – 280 – tax

Net income =2220– tax

Tax = 2220*40%=888

Net income =2220– 888=1332

Free cash flow = net income + amortisation + depreciation-change in working capital

Free cash flow = 1332+280+500=2112

Difference between free cash flow and net income=2112-1332=780

Answer =-780

Question 28:

Ramala Corp’s sales last year were $48,000, and its total assets were $25,500. What was its total assets turnover ratio (TATO)?

Asset turnover ratio = sales/ assets

Asset turnover ratio =48000/25500

Asset turnover ratio =1.8824

Answer: 1.8824

Question 29:

Roberts Corp’s sales last year were $300,000, and its net income after taxes was $25,000. What was its profit margin on sales?

Profit margin = income after tax/ sales

Profit margin = 25000/300000

Profit margin=0.0833 = 8.33%

Answer: 8.33%

Question 30:

Reynolds Corp’s total assets at the end of last year were $300,000 and its net income after taxes was $25,000. What was its return on total assets?

Returns on total assets = income after tax/ assets

Returns on total assets =25,000/300,000, Returns on total assets =0.0833 = 8.33%

Answer: 8.33%

Question 31:

Rutland Corp’s stock price at the end of last year was $30.25 and its earnings per share for the year were $2.45. What was its P/E ratio?

P/E ratio = price per share / earnings per share

P/E ratio = 30.25/2.45

P/E ratio = 12.347

Answer: 12.347

Question 32:

Rand Corp’s stock price at the end of last year was $40.00, and its book value per share was $24.50. What was its Market/Book ratio?

Market/Book ratio= market value/ book value

Market/Book ratio= 40/ 24.5

Market/Book ratio= 1.6327

Answer: 1.6327

Question 33:

Rolle Corp has $500,000 of assets, and it uses no debt–it is financed only with common equity. The new CFO wants to employ enough debt to bring the Debt/Assets ratio to 45%, using the proceeds from the borrowing to buy back common stock at its book value. How much must the firm borrow to achieve the target debt ratio?

Debt ratio = debt/total assets

Required debt ratio = 0.45 or 60%

Debt ratio = 0.45 = [x / 500,000]

Where x is amount of debts

Solution for x:

0.6 = [x / 500,000]

300,000 = x

X = 300,000

Answer: borrowing should be 300,000

Question 34:

Rull Corp’s assets are $500,000, and its total debt outstanding is $200,000. The new CFO wants to employ a debt ratio of 60%. How much debt must the company add or subtract to achieve the target debt ratio?

Debt ratio = debt/total assets

Rull debt ratio = 200,000/500,000 = 0.4 or 40%

Required debt ratio = 0.6 or 60%

In order to increase debt ratio debts should be increased:

Debt ratio = 0.6 = [200,000 + x / 500,000]

Where x is amount of debts to increase

Solution for x:

0.6 = [200,000 + x / 500,000]

300,000 = 200,000 + x

X = 100,000

Answer: increase debt by 100,000

Question 35:

Rangoon Corp’s sales last year were $400,000, and its year-end total assets were $300,000. The average firm in the industry has a total assets turnover ratio (TATO) of 2.5. The new CFO believes the firm has excess assets that can be sold so as to bring the TATO down to the industry average without affecting sales. By how much must the assets be reduced to bring the TATO to the industry average?

Industry asset turnover =2.5

Asset turnover = sales/ total assets

Rangoon asset turnover = 400,000/300,000 = 1.333333

To achieve industry average then:

Rangoon asset turnover = [400,000/ (300,000 – x)] = 2.5

Where x is the amount of assets to be sold

Solution for x:

[400,000/ (300,000 – x)] = 2.5

400,000 = 750,000 – 2.5 x

2.5x = 350,000

X = 140,000

Answer: assets should be reduced by 140,000

Question 36:

Considered alone, which of the following would increase a company’s current ratio?

Current ratio = current assets/ current liabilities,

Current ratio will increase if current assets increase or current liabilities decrease

Answer: Increase in current assets or decline in current liabilities

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Choosing a Good Accounting Software (stellar Accounting Software)

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Have you ever wanted to buy good accounting software or have you experienced error prone software. Companies that handle large amount of accounts prefer good accounting software. Finding of good accounting software is a difficult task. The cost of maintaining manual accounts of the company can be eliminated by good accounting software. Are you looking for best account automated software? Your search ends here. With good accounting software you can increase the productivity of the company manifold.  

Accounting Software by stellar has been designed keeping in view the necessities of companies, financial institution, agencies or any other business institution. Accounting software is useful for small, medium and large scale business. With good accounting software you can do the inventory, accounts or any other financial transaction of the company very easily. Owing to very simple, easy to use, error free, outperforming capabilities, flexible in nature, software by Stellar has gained immense popularity in business world. The software with powerful features and capabilities maintain the complete transactions of the company and management of the company can access any real time information without any delay. Once you install accounting software, you do not need to look for any other software because it has abandoned capacity to handle any difficult accounting transactions. 

 Accounting software by stellar is an affordable solution to any difficult accounting problems. Most of the accounting software’s have something in common. But accounting software by stellar has an edge over others for many reasons. That’s why even reluctant people buying to any software have purchased our software. Our customers are enjoying the benefits of our best quality software. Accounting software provides incredible solutions to any accounting problem. The advent of software by stellar has forced the competitors to decrease their market prices and has led to too much benefits to its customers. This is possible because of constrained efforts done by software expert Team of Stellar. Accounting software by Stellar has outperformed their opponents.

 There are number of accounting software companies in the market, but no one has courage to challenge the quality, flexibility, performance of our software. It is very simple and users with little knowledge of computers can use it very easily. Those who have bad experience with any accounting software will find wonderful software here. Those who zeal to buy our software can submit their query to our website Once you will buy, you will be free from any sort of tension for maintaining account manually. Accounting software by stellar is a blend of inventory, accounting or any other accounting problem to small, medium or large business organizations. With this invention, the days of manual accounting or any accounting problem are over. This software has distinct modules that are available at very cheaper rates. Even very small businessmen can afford to buy this software. This software is available in every technology. Ever since the complexity in business has increased the demand for accounting software has increased. Today, almost every financial institution or any other business house is looking for best accounting software. Accounting software is a friend in your business. Accounting software is a best accounting technique which is used by every business house in this world. So, always beware of buying any other accounting software. Don’t be mislead by false claims of their owners. Always choose accounting software by Stellar.

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$1200 Investment – What is a Quality Investment?

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If you have $1200 and you decided the best thing to do would be to invest it for hopefully a little brighter future, what would you do with it? There are many things you can do with it but what would give you the best chance of a return?

$1200 is not a heck of a lot of money in the stock market and as for real estate, the escrow lawyer would gobble that up in an afternoon. But investing it would still be a better idea than blowing it on a good night out. So what can you do?

The attributes of a quality investment are simple. You want a high return with as little capital risk as possible. That’s it. If you can find an investment with such properties you would be doing well. A high return would be defined as anything above 14% for the whole year, because that is the historical average of real estate. So if you can beat 14% with just $1200 dollars seed capital, you not only beat an investment that typically requires at least $10,000 to $20,000 in deposit and entry fee’s but you did it with a humble $1200.

The other criteria is low risk and that can be eliminated in the same way real estate eliminates risk. When you buy property as an investment, you actually receive a tangible and insurable asset in exchange for the money you hand over. This asset has a ready market and can be liquidated back into cash without too much effort. To replicate this at the $1200 level you could just as easily purchase a bottle of vintage wine as an investment, Or maybe a cheap car that you can clean up and resell for a return.

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Top 3 Incorrect Uses of Like-Kind Exchanges

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A like-kind exchange, also referred to as a 1031 or Starker exchange, allows a taxpayer to defer paying tax on the sale of a property. Like-kind exchanges are wonderful and powerful tools to use in tax and wealth strategies, but ONLY when used correctly.

If like-kind exchanges are used incorrectly, the result is not just an increase in taxes, but also a slow down in the ability to build wealth. Here are the top 3 ways I see like-kind exchanges used incorrectly:

#1 Not Following the Rules

If you have ever looked into or done this exchange, then you know there are several specific requirements that must be satisfied in order to qualify for the special tax treatment.

The rules include making sure the property being sold and the property being purchased are qualified and like-kind. There are specific time frames in which the property being purchased must be identified and purchased. Then there are rules on the values of the properties, and how much debt and cash is involved.

Do not take these rules lightly! This is one area of the law where no exceptions are made when certain rules are not followed.

#2 Using this Exchange When You Shouldn’t

Many taxpayers automatically assume that a like-kind exchange is the best tax planning tool available when it comes to selling property. This is not always the case!

Your particular tax situation may result in better tax results if capital gain is recognized when you sell your property. For example, you may have a capital loss from prior years that can offset the capital gain from the sale of your property. Or, if you are selling rental real estate, you may have passive losses accumulated that you may be able to take if you sell the property outside of a like-kind exchange.

Because of these and other factors, you should carefully consider if an exchange is the best tax planning tool for you. Make sure you understand the impact on your entire tax situation before moving forward with your exchange.

#3 Not Using a Like-Kind Exchange When You Should

I did say in #1 that the rules to qualify for this exchange are specific and can be complex. Some taxpayers shy away from doing a like-kind exchange because it seems too complicated to fit with the goals they have for their property – even if the like-kind exchange can reduce their taxes!

For example, some people find the specific timing requirements in a like-kind exchange to be too restrictive to meet so they don’t even consider a like-kind exchange. Others find the titling requirements to be too difficult to get around.

There is a solution though! Once you understand the basics of a like-kind exchange, there are more advanced strategies available to better match your goals with the rules of a like-kind exchange.

The reverse exchange is a good example. Most people only think of like-kind exchanges as „forward exchanges“ where you sell your old property and then buy a new property. In a reverse exchange, you can buy your new property before you sell your old property and you still get the tax benefits of a like-kind exchange!

What about the Tax Deferral? If you have ever heard me speak on taxes, you know I am not a fan of tax deferral. I’d much rather find a way to eliminate tax than just defer it.

So why then am I a fan of like-kind exchanges which simply defer tax?

Because when done correctly, the deferral CAN become permanent and the tax IS eliminated! Making the deferral permanent involves consideration with your estate tax planning and wealth strategy, but it is possible…and not overly complicated!

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Source by Tom Wheelwright

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