Global Warming

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„With public sentiment nothing can fail; without it nothing can succeed. Consequently, he who molds public sentiment goes deeper than he who enacts statutes than he who enacts or pronounces decisions.“ Abraham Lincoln.

People exist always only in combination with nature, they can not be separated from it by any means and thus any kind of changes either positive or negative are always reflected in our lives. Long time ago one of the main problems on the planet became the global climate change. The Artic ice starts to melt and disappear, Latin America and South America suffer from lethal storms and floods. Europeans have to face melting glaciers, forest fires and heat waves. The tree rings and ancient coral in ice cores show that the world has not been as warm before as it is now. The warmest years were all starting since 1998. Most of these changes are influenced by human activities, as people burn the nature’s stores of coal, oil and natural gas. As a result billions of tones of carbon dioxide come into the air annually. Some scientists even suppose that these changes were caused by the dawn of agriculture. The well known phenomenon connected with global warming is greenhouse effect. CO2 is a greenhouse gas that makes the obstacle for the Sun radiation in the troposphere, the lower atmosphere. Some researches also show that cosmic rays are also connected with this effect. As soon as the atmospheric CO2 rises the global temperatures are luckily to rise by around 2C to 5 C. As a result the ice starts to melt, changes in clouds and vegetation occur and so on. When the glaciers melt, they will certainly cause some rivers to overflow, while others will be emptied. The situations with water resources might cause conflicts in different regions. All this will of course influence the natural ecosystems, as not all species can move quickly enough to put up with the global warming, for example coral reefs. The melting ices will influence not only the level of rivers‘ water, but also the level of the oceans is disturbed. And if the level of the ocean rises 6 meters higher, that would be enough to flood the lands of billions of people.

Forests and oceans on our planet were able to absorb about half of the CO2 people produced, but since 2001 the amount of CO2 is twice bigger, which really limits the resources of the nature.

Methane is the second most important gas for greenhouse effect. The effect of methane is even 20 times greater than carbon dioxide, but there is less methane in the atmosphere. Methane influences 25% of global warming. Methane is produced by cows and termites. Thus agriculture and rice growing can produce methane. Besides coal mining and oil wells also produce methane. The level of methane in the atmosphere is constantly increasing – this is also an alarming fact for the Earth climate.

Public Health organizations are also worried about global warming, as researches state that the global warming is luckily to increase human mortality, when the cases of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and other  parasites increase. But the American Council on Science and Health announced the conclusions of its study which show that such diseases could become serious problems for people disregarding global warming and that these diseases can be prevented not only by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of these conclusions was certainly to make the diseases for the government not associated with global warming. The findings of the American Council on Science and Health were as follows:

– As the World Health Organization states that there are more than 500 million cases of malaria each year, malaria can not be caused only by warming of the climate, the increasing of the temperature can increase the incidents of malaria only by 10-16%.
– The ACSH studies were also stating that wealth can bring health and stimulate long living, whereas poverty is one of the reasons for hard diseases and short life spans. And public health would be put at risk when great economic costs could go on control of greenhouse gas emissions, as it could lead to poverty.
– Yellow fever, malaria and other tropical diseases could be prevented with fewer costs than those needed to restrict greenhouse gas emissions, for example: use of vaccinations, judicious use of pesticides and biological control methods, usage of mosquito and fly screens and public education.
– Spending money for reducing greenhouse gas emissions means that this money can not be used for better methods of preventing the above mentioned diseases, as better nutrition and sanitation.
This was one of the bright examples how the problem of global warming is not treated in a proper way in order to solve the financial and other problems of the high politic leaders, who care really not much for the future of the whole planet.

But no matter what is said, global warming still stays a great problem of the whole mankind. Certainly it is not possible to stop all human activities that disturb the atmosphere as they are connected with producing food and making people warm. But we should not forget that some predictions about global warming are close to tragic. People are controlling the whole Earth as there are almost no places, which never felt the hand of a human. And thus the whole responsibility is on people. There are certain measures to at least avoid the worst case, the disaster on the planet. People can reduce of greenhouse gas emissions with the help of energy conservation, like turning the computers and other technical devices off, when they do not use them, use compact fluorescent lights, unplug the chargers of cell phones and digital cameras and so on.

The issues of global warming and fossil fuel usage are certainly closely connected. The use of oil and natural resources will decline in a decade. But this would not reduce the carbon dioxide emissions automatically, the replacements with coal, heavy oil and tar sand contain even more carbon, if to make them produce the same amount of energy they will produce twice more carbon. But the fact is that all transport, roads and airports for this transport are useless without oil. To create a new transport system is a task for the whole society, not for an individual, besides it would need money, time, natural resources and a lot of brain power. So the previous arguments concerning a lot of money spent on the stopping or at least slowing the global warming can be put aside against these ones.

The projections made for the future state that Earth will be an ice planet without greenhouse effect, the Earth will get warmer, by the 2100 the temperature will be 1.5 C – 4.5 C warmer, the increase will be less in the southern hemisphere and greater in the northern hemisphere. The global temperature is connected with carbon dioxide level and methane level, which at the moment exceed greatly the past levels.

It is necessary to mention some facts concerning the future in order to understand why the global warming can be considered a disaster for the whole planet. Certainly it is not possible to know the future climate on Earth precisely, but some data are certain: every century brings the increase of the temperature of 1-2C. It is enough for Greenland and Antarctica to start melting, thus some part of northern areas could become a farmland and Sahara might become bigger. Storms can be stronger. Some countries like Bangladesh and Netherlands are luckily to vanish because of the ocean level rise up to 5 meters.

The term „climate forcings“ is often used though it is hard to give its precise definition. To define it simply – this is an event that influences global climate. At this point it is necessary to mention that the weather and climate are different things, the weather is described with the help of variations of dryness or wetness, cold and heat. They do not play a great role for the whole picture on the Earth, but climate can be influenced by forcings, like for example a volcanic eruption can cool the climate on the whole Earth. Such forcing is called a short term forcing. An example of long term forcing may be continental drift which within millions of years changes the path of ocean currents. To anthropogenic forcings belong fossil fuel burning and agriculture. Not all forcings of humans result in global warming, sulfur dioxide from coal burning produces aerosols and they result in cooling.

These were the main negative influences on the climate that cause the global warming. They are rather serious and need urgent steps taken by people in order to avoid the catastrophes in the world of nature, to which we by the way also belong.

So the climate of the Earth should be an international concern and not only of scientists and ordinary people, but also of those who hold power in their hand and are able to make the politics work not only for money, but also for the future of the whole mankind. Unfortunately, these are mostly beautiful words and promises when elections are in the future as soon as they are over the real situation changes. Not a single national leader has come out publicly and said that the recent spate of hurricanes was the result of global warming, this is a part of conventional wisdom of environmentalists that they should not frighten the public, but should focus their interest on technical solutions, like for example hybrid cars and so on.

Global warming is such a problem that it is necessary to deal with all its aspects, which includes the politics. When politicians formulate their policy they need inputs from many disciplines and from science as well. But unfortunately global warming has become an absolutely political issue and politicians do their best to influence even science.

In 1992 at the Earth Summit the decision to prevent such dangerous climate change was taken. The first step was the 1997 Kyoto protocol, which is supposed to come into force in 2005.

One of the reports of the U.N. Panel on Climate Changes warns that the U.S. and other wealthy countries should immediately cut their oil and gas consumption and agree to get at least a quarter of their electrical energy from renewable resources – solar and wind power; and that they should double their research spending on low-carbon energy by 2010.In 1997 the U.S. Senate voted 95-0 to make Clinton Administration not to send the Kyoto treaty to Capitol Hill for ratification. In his first term president Bush rejected Kyoto. Russia ratified it, but most believe that Putin was made to do that as British Prime Minister and other European Union officials threatened not to let him become a member of World Trade Organization, which could cost Russia billions of dollars each year. But the chief economic adviser of Putin – Andrei Illarionov shows his doubts as for the upholding commit to Kyoto, he says: „There is no evidence confirming a positive linking between the level of carbon dioxide and temperature change. The U.N. Panel’s so called scientific data are considerably distorted and in many cases falsified“ (Can We Defuse the Global Warming Time Bomb?, by James Hansen, 2003, pp.2-15). One of the main ideas of Ilarionov and others is to break the advanced economies of the U.S., Europe and Japan, by persuading the multi-national companies to move plants and jobs to developing countries in order not to comply with emissions restrictions. But the president of the American Policy Center in Washington – Tom DeWeese doesn’t agree that it makes sense, he states as the main concern and the prime target is the wealth of the United States it would not be wise to place factories in Third World countries, as the same amount of emissions would come out from jungles of South America instead of Chicago and in this case we are not talking about the protection of the environment any more. He is right in a way.

The main goal of the meeting in Kyoto was signing the amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Rio Treaty) in order to require the signatory nations to take the necessary steps to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, as these gases cause an alarm situation with global temperatures. The costs of signing it for the U.S. could be really high, as the county could be made to reduce between 10 and 20 % of greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2020, that would cause reduction of gross domestic products by $260 billion annually, it is equal to $2.700 per household. Certainly it was hard to prove that such costs are justified. Besides as millions of American people could be put at risk, several important questions appeared. The first one was about the possible merits or drawbacks of global warming. The World Bank researches prove that about one-third of the whole population suffers from water shortages. By 2025 they say – around 40 % of the whole population could be living in countries without sufficient water supplies. The crops will also suffer from lack of water. Global warming leads to more condensation and more evaporation, thus producing more rains. So it could be in a way an answer to the problem about lack of water. The second positive point about global warming is possibility of agriculture in North America and Europe, the southern regions of Greenland were not covered with ice when between 10th and 12th centuries the temperature was 0.5 degrees warmer than today, and could be also cultivated. The evidence of this was found when: „scientists from the National Science Foundation sponsored Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 extracted in an ice core from Greenland’s ice sheet that spanned more than 100.000 years of climate history. Samplings from the core suggest that a Little Ice Age began between 1400 and 1420, blanketing the Vikings‘ farms in ice and forcing them to abandon their farms in search of more hospitable climates“.( Michael Crichton’s State of Fear: Climate Change in the Cineplex, by Amy Ridenour pp.1-5). Thus global warming could mean more agricultural productivity and more water resources.

The idea that great storms are connected with global warming is sometimes called a myth. Those who say so find little evidence to support this fact and also to support a conclusion that there is a connection between global warming and increasing number of such pests and mosquitoes that bring malaria, yellow fever and other diseases.  The researches of George C. Marshal institute show that most severe storms are more associated with warm and cold weather, for example in the North Sea the storms occurred between 15th and 16th centuries after the onset of Little Ice Age. The United Health Organization writes that with the grow of international traveling and great number of migrations and refugees people have the chance to communicate more, and thus the diseases are spread more quickly, not just from one person to another, but also from one continent to another.

Another important question concerns the global warming itself. Depending on the time period we are discussing the planet is either warming or not. Our planet has experienced several periods of warming and cooling. In his article in 1994 Richard Kerr offered his point of view about this issue: „In order for a climate model to have credibility, it must first be able to reliably „predict“ current climate. … Some „tune“ their models by adjusting the strength of solar radiation; others by adjusting the transfer of energy between the ocean and the atmosphere to get just the desired results. The result is climate models that are largely worthless“. (When Science Meets Politics on Global Warming, by Roy W. Spencer, 1998 pp.1-4).

Another question concerns economical results of reducing of greenhouse gas emissions. The plan as to reduce them to their 1990 level by 2000 and with further reductions for 2010 and 2020. This would make the taxes for carbon dioxide raise up to $100 $200 pro metric ton. Then by 2010 this could cause about 500.000 – one million job loses in U.S. The situation in Australia would be even worse, as they have a strong mining sector. The economies of developing countries would also be sensitive to these reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. The emissions in Brazil grew by 20%, in India – by 28%, in Indonesia – by 40% between 1990 and 1995.Thus developing nations and oil exporters have fears concerning their economic futures. That is why developing nations were exempted from reduction mandate under the Berlin mandate.

So the main point of political leaders is that the high costs for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are not worth the climate benefits they could bring. There is a point of view that even if such steps are necessary for improving our climate, we should not hurry and should at first improve our knowledge about causes and consequences of global warming, we should develop technology that could reduce the greenhouse emissions per unit of output, increase the reflectivity of atmosphere. The supporters of this position state that there are a lot of other important economical, scientific and political issues that need to be solved and there is no reason to rush to conclusions about global warming, as scientists themselves are a kind of swept up in the moment. Even after the Kyoto was coming into force constant debates between climate skeptics and global warming „supporters“ continued. For example when Kevin Trenberth, being a head of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested that there was a connection between climate changes and wave of hurricanes,  Christopher Landsea, hurricane expert at America’s national Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration wrote in his public letter that: „because of Dr. Trenberth’s pronouncements. The IPCC process has been subverted and compromised, its neutrality lost“ (When Science Meets Politics on Global Warming, by Roy W. Spencer, 1998 pp.1-4).

The concepts of „nature“ and „environment“ were reconstructed. Actually the human-made phenomenon – global warming- is somehow considered environmental. Some people believe that this framing is political, not just conceptual problem. When the term environment is used it means something that is „out there“ and needs fixing, but in reality the problem can not be considered external, as it is within people and not out. And it was and will be the humans‘ problem.

Overall, the warming of the Earth has become a serious problem concerning, scientists, citizens and of course policy-makers. It is certainly hard to give one-sided characteristics to all effects, results and reasons of the global warming described above, there are certainly possibilities that not all recent researches and conclusions of scientists are true to life 100%, and the statement that in several decades we will know much more about climate changing and global warming has also some rational points. But on the other hand it is hard to deny the fact that the human beings do influence the climate and the nature greatly. These issues touch every single person on the planet and the whole mankind. They should bother the policy making people as well. They have to care for the wealth of the country but to simply deny all the negative facts about global warming is hardly the best way out. But unfortunately it usually happens so that the politics are more interested in real facts concerning finance and industrial developments than in vague future of the whole planet. As the whole industrial process and thus the economy of almost any country depends on its usage of natural resources, the climate seems a low „price“ for spoiling them. When they start to think about problems caused by climate change, they think first of all about refugees, loss of job places, food shortages because of bad development of agriculture and so on.

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Source by John Nilson

Benefits and Challenges of Multinational Companies (MNCs)

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Multinational companies (MNCs) are not without benefits, which may be to the government, the economy, and the people or even to itself. Cole (1996) stated that the size of multinational organization is enormous; many of them have total sales well in excess of the GND of many of the world’s nations. Cole also stated that World Bank statistics of comparison between multinational companies and national GNPs shows, for example, that large oil firms such as Exxon and Shell are large in economic terms that nations such as South Africa, Australia and Argentina are substantially greater than nations such as Greece, Bulgaria and Egypt.

Other large multinational companies include General Motors, British Petroleum, Ford and International Business Machine (IBM). Some of the benefits of multinational companies are:

1. There is usually huge capital investment in major economic activities

2. The country enjoys varieties of products, services and facilities, brought to their door steps

3. There is creation of more jobs for the populace

4. The nation’s pool of skills are best utilized and put to use effectively and efficiently

5. There is advancement in technology as these companies bring in state-of-the-art-technology for their businesses

6. The demand for training and retraining and advancement in the people’s education becomes absolutely necessary. This will in turn help strengthen the economy of the nation

7. The living standard of the people is boosted

8. Friendliness between and among nations in trade i.e. it strengthen international relation

9. The balance of payments of nations in trade are improved on

In the words of Cole (1996), he stated that the sheer size (and wealth) of multinationals means that they can have a significant effect on host country. To Cole, most of the effects are beneficial and include some of the above or all. The Electronic Library of Scientific Literature (1996) explained the benefits of MNCs under a theory known as ‚The Theory of Externalities‘. The theory considers the benefits of MNCs from the point of view of those who maintain the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as part of the engine necessary for growth. In the contribution of Davies (1989), he gave some theories on the benefits/advantages of multinational. Davies (1989:260) tagged this ‚Economic Theory‘ and the multinational where he took a comprehensive and critical look at the benefits of MNCs.

More benefits came along with these people’s theories and some are:

1. There is significant injection into the local economy in respect to investment

2. Best utilization of the country’s natural resources

3. They help in strengthening domestic competition

4. They are good source of technological expertise

5. Expansion of market in the host country

PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES FACING MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

There is no company without problems it is facing. Whether an organization is big or small, there will certainly be some sort of problems or negative factor/influence militating against its survival or continuity. Weihrich and Koontz (1994) states that the operation of multinational companies needs to be weighed against the environmental challenges and most of the challenges being faced by multinational companies are:

1. There is usually acute shortage of manpower – people with lack of managerial and technical skills

2. The challenge of unfriendly business environment

3. There is usually the problem of conflicting interest among the three parties – the government, the MNC and the general public

4. There may be huge cost of labour in the host country, at least to get the expatriate managers from home country or somewhere else

Conclusively, the above mentioned authors have given all round and comprehensive note on the benefits of MNCs to the host country where they operate and as well highlighted the derivable benefits to the MNCs themselves from the host country. Likewise, in spite of the challenges and the problems being faced by these MNCs, they still continue to survival and waxing stronger.

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Source by Oluwanisola Seun

I/O Device Error Problem and the Simple Ways to Fix It

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The I/O Device Error appears when the computer is not responding effectively while reading or copying the data or installing software from CD to DVD drive. In more simple terms it occurs when your computer is not able to complete an input/output operation on the drive which you are accessing for transferring of the data or anything which you’re CD cannot use or recognize at all. But dealing with this error problem is not an insurmountable task as the following simple steps would ensure the rectification of the problem ultimately.

Check for a Defective Disc – First check for any defective disc in your PC, as the message is prompted if the CD disc in use is covered with dust particles which in turn pass it on to your CD drive and also check for any fingerprints on the drive, then clean the sides by wiping from inner parts to outer edges, insert the disc and try again.

Check for the Defective Drive in your PC, which you can make out when it is not able to read the disc inserted, but the CD is able to run on drives of other systems; and this requires cleaning up or repair of the drive.

Check for Incorrect Transfer Mode – One might be trying an incorrect transfer mode which in turn does not allow the removable drive to recognize the copy or transfer technique used by operating system and this requires immediate alteration of some of the IDE properties. To rectify this problem, go to ‘My Computer’, select “Manage” and select Device Manger from it. Check for the CD or DVD drive in the ATA/ATAPI list, select the particular drive (device 1) and opt for properties. Then go to “Advanced Setting” and select “Transfer Mode” in which choose “PIO only”. Then press OK while returning to the main screen and restart the system.

If even after this, the error is not rectified, go back to the drive properties again and choose “DMA if available” for device 1. For device 0, select “PIO only”. Close the windows and restart the computer.
Check for loose cables in your system by checking for wiring and connections of hard disk and the CD, and try removing and reconnecting them, and copying the files again.

Keep updating CD drivers always by downloading the latest CD drivers otherwise the operating system could not recognize them. After downloading, restart the computer, transfer some files and check for the presence of the error. To effectively deal with I/O device error, try downloading the updated files frequently released by Windows and the OSs to check for incompatibility problem.

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Mining In Chile – The Pros And Cons

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On 13th October 2010, the last of 33 miners trapped by an accident at the San Jose copper-gold mine near Copiapo, Chile was winched to safety. He had been at a depth of 2,300 feet below ground level. He had spent 69 days trapped underground with his companions after a shaft collapsed at the notoriously dangerous mine where the deaths of 8 miners had been reported over the last 12 years.

This high publicity incident was a catalyst for Chile’s mining regulation agency to bring the hammer down, closing 18 mines within days and scheduling a further 300 for closure. It’s easy to condemn Chilean mining as unsafe and exploitative, but what are the real pros and cons of the industry?

Pros

1) Mining is a great source of income for Chilean workers

Chilean copper mine workers are among the highest-paid miners in South America. However, inflated wages are used to entice workers to mines with poor safety records, as in the case of San Jose; mine workers were paid around 20% more for their troubles.

2) Generally Chilean mines have a good safety record

San Jose is an example of a smaller mine at which standards are known to slip. However, the larger mines generally owned by multi-nationals or the state copper mining company, Codelco, run a tighter ship.

3) Mining brings the benefits of a strong economy to Chileans

Currently enjoying a strong economic status, the population of Chile have good reason to be thankful for the mining industry. Over a third of government income due to exports come from copper alone. One notable benefit of the economic surplus from copper mining is the use of government funds to pay for reconstruction after the 2010 Chilean earthquake.

Cons

1) Inadequate government resources are available to monitor the industry

Between 2004 and 2010, the San Esteban Mining Company (owner of the San Jose mine) received 42 fines for breaching safety regulations. Why was the San Jose accident allowed to happen? Due to budget constraints, there were only three inspectors for the Atacama Region’s 884 mines. Despite a very immediate public response to correct the problems that led to the San Jose disaster, the government still has much to do to bring the industry under control.

2) It isn’t all wine and roses economically

Copper is a highly volatile commodity on the international markets, experiencing increases and decreases in value of up to 50% during the 1980’s. The Chilean government have established a Stabilization Fund to put aside the surpluses of good years to cover the shortfall of others, but the unpredictability of such a core element of the entire country’s economy is a great source of risk.

3) Environmental concerns

Copper mining produces 99 tons of waste for every ton of usable material. When you consider the usable copper output of Chile, that’s a lot of waste.

It isn’t often that Latin American countries get to reap the benefits of their natural resources, and Chile is a good example of a country that turns it’s rich mineral deposits into benefits that reach the population. However, in the rush to make the most of what it’s got, Chile has lost control of the smaller players in the mining industry, and it’s any one’s guess if they will be able to rein things in to the point where accidents like San Jose are a distant memory.

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Source by Gary Sargent

5 ways to safeguard your cashflow

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Money or hard cash is an important element of any profit generating organization. An organization’s resources produce income, which alternatively generates cash inflows. These cash inflows are employed for numerous reasons – to payoff creditors, to pay employees compensation, reward shareholders, replacement of technologies and resources, and provide for growth.

Cash is unique and important since it is the only asset that is easily convertible into any other type of asset. Hence, it is also the most commonly desired asset in any organization. But, on the other hand, cash is also the asset that is for the most part at risk to fraud and abuse. Consequently, management must make sure that sufficient controls and safeguards have to be in place to eradicate any unlawful transactions with cash.

Luckily, there are methods management can safeguard the cash produced by its organization. Following are the methods that will facilitate management to avoid losses because of human error or theft:

  • Monthly bank reconciliation
  • Separation of duties over cash handling
  • Liability for cash shortages
  • Authoritative cash disbursement
  • Internal audits

Monthly bank reconciliation – Monthly bank reconciliation will facilitate to make sure that the amount produced by an organization is consistent with bank records. Moreover to this, an independent evaluation by management will give an additional safeguard.

Separation of duties over cash handling – In order to eradicate any unauthorized transactions with cash, every organization must ensure that there is sufficient separation of duties over cash handling. Separation of duties will stop an individual from committing and concealing fraud and abuse.

Liability for cash shortages – If supervisors know that they will be held liable for a cash shortage, they will be provoked to keep a close eye on how cash is employed within their departments. And, management should hold supervisors liable for cash shortages.

Authoritative cash disbursement – Management should employ a method to track cash usage. And in order to do this, management must let cash to be pay out only through checks issued by authorized signatories.

Internal audits – Every organization must have to conduct internal audits on a regular basis. An internal audits, whether it is conducted by an internal audit staff or an outside auditing firm, will help to identify how efficient and precise the operation is and tell you whether or not any enhancement are needed.

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Source by john irron

Architecture Of Ancient Greece

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The traces of ancient Greek architecture can be traced back to the 8th century BC. Since the ancient Greek buildings were made up of clay, wood or mud-brick, no remains have been found of them barring a few ground plans. In fact, almost no sources or descriptions exist about the embryonic Greek buildings. However, most of our present day knowledge about Greek architecture comes from the late archaic period, also known as the Periclean age.

Temples
The temples of ancient Greece were the biggest and most beautiful. They also had a political purpose as they were often built to celebrate civic power and pride, or offer thanksgiving to the patron deity of a city for success in war. Other architectural forms used by the Greeks were the tholos or circular temple, of which the best example is the Tholos of Theodorus at Delphi dedicated to the worship of Athena Pronaia; the propylon or porch, forming the entrance to temple sanctuaries.

The most knowledge about ancient Greek architecture comes form late archaic period (550 – 500 BC), the Periclean age (450 – 430 BC), and the early to pure classical period (430 – 400 BC). Examples of Greek architecture can be drawn from Hellenistic and Roman periods and from written sources such as Vitruvius (1st century).

Although the ancient Greeks erected buildings of many types, the Greek temple best exemplifies the aims and methods of Greek architecture. The temples were quite different from the modern day church as the altar generally stood in front of the open sky, directly in front of the temple. The temples generally served as storage places and the inner rooms of the temples were mainly strongrooms.

In addition to temples, the Greeks also built a number of other kinds of structures. Their public spaces included monumental tombs; agoras, in ancient Greece, the public square or marketplace of a city.

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Source by Jeff Walker

What’s the Difference Between DS3 and T3 Bandwidth?

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Don’t be confused about the difference between DS3 and T3 circuits. These terms are really synonymous. Instead you should focus on what they can do for you…and the best scenarios for application.

Digital Signal (DS) is a system of classifying digital circuits according to the rate and format of the signal (DS) and the equipment providing the signals (T). DS and T designations have come to be used synonymously so that DS1 implies T1, and DS3 implies T3.

A DS3 line (also known as a T-3) is an ultra high-speed connection capable of transmitting data at rates up to 45 Mbps. A DS3 line is equal to approximately 672 regular voice-grade telephone lines, which is fast enough to transmit full-motion, real-time video, and very large databases over a busy network. A DS3 line is typically installed as a major networking artery for large corporations and universities with high-volume network traffic. Other example applications include large call centers, enterprise wide VoIP and IP PBX systems, Internet service providers, research labs, video conference centers and software development companies. A DS3 is the second fastest, non optical connection offered in North America. A DS3 line is comprised of 28 T1 lines, each operating at total signaling rate of 1.544 Mbps.

DS3 circuits provide businesses and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) with up to 45 Mb/s of dedicated Internet connectivity. This is an ideal solution for users who have outgrown their T1 connections and are in search of unlimited, high-capacity access. A DS3 line actually consists of 672 individual channels, each of which supports 64 Kb/s. DS3 lines are extremely high bandwidth connections into a carrier’s backbone. They typically include SLAs (Service Level Agreements) that guarantee uptime and performance.

The DS3 signal itself is composed of 28 DS1 signals and is constructed using a two-step multiplexing process. First, the 28 DS1 signals are multiplexed into seven DS2 signals. Second, the seven DS2 signals are multiplexed into one DS3 signal. Each multiplexing step uses bit stuffing to handle the different input frequencies. Overhead bits provide alignment, error checking, in-band communications, and bit stuffing control information.

Line rate: 44,736,000 b/s

Signals: 7 DS2 signals = 28 DS1 signals

Overhead bits:

56 bits total/frame

F-bits (framing) 28 bits/

M-bits (multiframing) 3 bits/

C-bits (stuffing) 21 bits

X-bits (message) 2 bits/

P-bits (parity) 2 bits/

Data bits between overhead bits 84

A DS3 connection is comprised up of two monthly charges: the local loop and the port charge. The local loop charge is the cost of the circuit provided by the Local Exchange Carrier (LEC) that allows DS3 access into the carrier’s network. The loop charge is based on the distance from the customer’s location to the edge of the carrier’s network; the farther the customer is from the network, the more the loop will cost. Nearly every carrier prices loops differently so it is in your best interest to price DS3 service with several providers to ensure that you get the best deal.

DS Internet Access is the ideal solution for businesses that require high-bandwidth access at a reduced price. Whether you host high-traffic Web sites, support Web hosting or need high-capacity bandwidth on an as-needed basis, there’s a level of DS3 service (Full or fractional) that will meet your needs. Fractional to full DS3 or T3 circuits run from speeds of 3 Mbps up to 45 Mbps.

For customers that require more bandwidth than a T1 line can provide but do not yet require the capacity of a full DS3 line, a fractional DS3 connection is the ideal solution. A fractional DS3 is similar to a full DS(T)3, only with some of the channels turned off. This reduces the total monthly cost and provides additional capacity that can be turned up in a matter of days. Unfortunately, the DS3 (T) loop is still required for this service.

If a full DS3 line is more bandwidth that you really need, it is also possible to get Fractional DS3, which gives you a portion of full DS3 bandwidth at a lower cost. Of course, DS3 is also available in multiples to increase bandwidth, similar to bonded T1 service.

DS3 service can be deployed for a wide verity of applications. The most common uses are DS3 point-to-point, DS3 internet, DS3 frame relay, DS3 voice and DS3 VPN. The pricing for these connections varies widely depending on the carrier, location of service and the application for which the connection is being used. Visit DS3 Bandwidth Solutions to obtain current „real time“ rate quotes for your location.

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Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

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Source by Michael Lemm

School Software by Stellar Data Solution

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With the increase in complexity the manual management of School Administration has become difficult. Skoolmanager is software by Stellar Data Solution Pvt. Ltd also called as school software, has been developed to reduce redundancy, inefficiency, mismanagement from any department of school. Skoolmanager, a school administration software has been automates the process of admission, attendance, fee, timetable in such a way that user with a little computer knowledge can do all this in an efficient manner. School administration software comprises 12 models that automate all the departments of educational institution. With school software, School administration can get any real time information. School administration software is an error free software that has been designed in such a way that it take cares all the necessities of the educational institutions.  School administration software comprises 12 distinct modules that automate all the departments of school. School administration software can also be used for academy management, College administration or any other educational institute management. Owing to its special and best features Skoolmanager is also called as an ERP of School. School administration software is flexible, easy to use, and cheap has been developed by an expert team of Stellar Data Solutions Pvt. Ltd. Provides a comprehensive solution to the entire problems in the way of efficient and easy management of every department of the school. School software is very much helpful for teachers because teachers can handle student attendance, grading or marks obtained by various students in a class in an efficient way. 

School administration software is also helpful in library management. Librarian can handle the library efficiently without any manual management. Librarian can keep track record of the books issued to students, remaining books in the library. With school software any addition or deletion of book in library stock is quite easy. 

School administration software is also helpful for time table management of school. It helps in allocation of subjects to teachers, number of lectures that teacher schedules to deliver. With School administration software you can mention the exams held in your school and grade or marks obtained by each student in the examination.  

Payroll management is a big burden on HR department of school. School software has been integrated with the best features that it automatically calculates the working days, salary cut or any other deductions like PF etc. The Fee Module of School administration software 2.7 is the one of the most automated fee calculation module available in the market. It automatically calculates fee, pending fee, deductions or concessions, the varying mode of fee payments.

School administration software is also helpful for inventory purpose. All the wear and tear of the school can be calculated automatically and it also presents a very clear picture of profit and loss. That’s why school software By Stellar Data Solutions is also called ERP of School or any educational institute. Yet there are other school administration software’s available in the market but Due to its special features like flexibility, cheap price, and easy to use, error-free skoolmanager has an edge over others. Our world wide customers are very happy with the use of our software. For More details Contact us at: http://skoolmanager.com/contact_us.php

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg
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Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
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Source by Sukhdeepak Singh

Find Out the Best Litecoin Brokers

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Searching the best litecoin brokers that can help you through your trading can be a daunting task; however, with the help of the litecoin brokers reviews you know which the brokerage firms that you can trust are. Litecoin, a decentralized online currency, can be used to purchase internet services, such as website development or goods, etc. with ease.

Litecoin also provides merchants with a safe and easy way to accept money, as there are no fees when sending or receiving funds. It is like Bitcoin, another digital currency that is making a lot of news. Here users will also find that all payments are recorded via an online system, otherwise known as the blockchain.

Needless to say litecoin very much like Bitcoin enables the payment receiver to immediately verify the payment and the user, without having to research it all by hand. The best litecoin brokers can be extremely helpful for you if you are trading the digital currency and wish to make profits buying and selling in whatever amount.

As it appears crystal clear that whatever the traders or ordinary users need, litecoins can be a great way to make online purchases. For instance, the digital currency can help them protect their own finances by protecting them from inflation and other external influences that might affect the value. Thus, litecoin has emerged as a real valuable option for money.

Best Litecoin Brokers with Attractive Offers

As litecoins can be used worldwide, by anyone, these are also being used as trading assets by a lot of traders. However, as there are only a few brokerage firms that offer litecoin trading, it is important for traders that they find only the best litecoin brokers. Like using Bitcoin is easy, the traders also expect that the best litecoin brokerage firm also offers cheap brokerage charges.

The fees experienced by Litecoin users are significantly lower when compared to that of credit card companies and bank transfers; however, trading becomes expensive if done with the brokerage firm that has higher brokerage charges. Litecoin trading can become a costly affair if the brokerage charges are unaffordable.

Similarly, it is worth noting that there will only ever be 84 million litecoins, so you don’t need to worry about inflation that may affect the overall value of the currency the traders have. Needless to say many people make exchanges using litecoins, with millions of trades happening every day.

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Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg
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Source by Andrew Jones

The Top 3 Reasons to Stay Away From Forex Robots

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It seems like everybody in the forex trading world is absolutely fascinated with forex robots. People are either spending thousands of hours trying to create one or thousands of dollars buying one. After all, who would not want to make money forex trading, without having to do the actual work. But there are a few things wrong with forex robots:

1) The markets are just too complicated . The forex market is just not (for a lack of a better word) programmable. You can not insert a piece of software to trade for you on autopilot and expect to become rich overnight. Trading is a little more intricate than that. More traders need to start getting off of this „mechanical“ mindset.

2) Do not You Think There Would Be More Success Stories? It seems to me that if most of these forex robots worked, there would be a higher percentage of traders having success in the market. As it stands right now, 95% of forex traders are losing money. If there were traders who were using the same trading robots and using the same parameters for entering and exiting a trade, would not it stand to reason that more people would be successful? After all, there are no emotions involved, and everybody is trading off the same entries and exits.

3) You Can not Trust Your Broker . Let’s face it. We all need our broker, but I would not trust mine as far as I could throw them. When you use a trading robot, you are not in control of your own trades. This means that you have to be able to trust the broker to enter and exit trades according to your automated robot. That is what I like to call a giant leap of faith. In fact, I suggest you look at all the forex forums that are out there and see how many traders have demoed a given forex robot, and had a lot of success, but when they used that robot to trade for real money, all of a sudden they were losing pips. It’s funny how that works, does not it?

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg
Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und kompetent


Source by John Templeton