Benefits and Challenges of Multinational Companies (MNCs)


Multinational companies (MNCs) are not without benefits, which may be to the government, the economy, and the people or even to itself. Cole (1996) stated that the size of multinational organization is enormous; many of them have total sales well in excess of the GND of many of the world’s nations. Cole also stated that World Bank statistics of comparison between multinational companies and national GNPs shows, for example, that large oil firms such as Exxon and Shell are large in economic terms that nations such as South Africa, Australia and Argentina are substantially greater than nations such as Greece, Bulgaria and Egypt.

Other large multinational companies include General Motors, British Petroleum, Ford and International Business Machine (IBM). Some of the benefits of multinational companies are:

1. There is usually huge capital investment in major economic activities

2. The country enjoys varieties of products, services and facilities, brought to their door steps

3. There is creation of more jobs for the populace

4. The nation’s pool of skills are best utilized and put to use effectively and efficiently

5. There is advancement in technology as these companies bring in state-of-the-art-technology for their businesses

6. The demand for training and retraining and advancement in the people’s education becomes absolutely necessary. This will in turn help strengthen the economy of the nation

7. The living standard of the people is boosted

8. Friendliness between and among nations in trade i.e. it strengthen international relation

9. The balance of payments of nations in trade are improved on

In the words of Cole (1996), he stated that the sheer size (and wealth) of multinationals means that they can have a significant effect on host country. To Cole, most of the effects are beneficial and include some of the above or all. The Electronic Library of Scientific Literature (1996) explained the benefits of MNCs under a theory known as ‚The Theory of Externalities‘. The theory considers the benefits of MNCs from the point of view of those who maintain the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as part of the engine necessary for growth. In the contribution of Davies (1989), he gave some theories on the benefits/advantages of multinational. Davies (1989:260) tagged this ‚Economic Theory‘ and the multinational where he took a comprehensive and critical look at the benefits of MNCs.

More benefits came along with these people’s theories and some are:

1. There is significant injection into the local economy in respect to investment

2. Best utilization of the country’s natural resources

3. They help in strengthening domestic competition

4. They are good source of technological expertise

5. Expansion of market in the host country

PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES FACING MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

There is no company without problems it is facing. Whether an organization is big or small, there will certainly be some sort of problems or negative factor/influence militating against its survival or continuity. Weihrich and Koontz (1994) states that the operation of multinational companies needs to be weighed against the environmental challenges and most of the challenges being faced by multinational companies are:

1. There is usually acute shortage of manpower – people with lack of managerial and technical skills

2. The challenge of unfriendly business environment

3. There is usually the problem of conflicting interest among the three parties – the government, the MNC and the general public

4. There may be huge cost of labour in the host country, at least to get the expatriate managers from home country or somewhere else

Conclusively, the above mentioned authors have given all round and comprehensive note on the benefits of MNCs to the host country where they operate and as well highlighted the derivable benefits to the MNCs themselves from the host country. Likewise, in spite of the challenges and the problems being faced by these MNCs, they still continue to survival and waxing stronger.

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Source by Oluwanisola Seun

I/O Device Error Problem and the Simple Ways to Fix It


The I/O Device Error appears when the computer is not responding effectively while reading or copying the data or installing software from CD to DVD drive. In more simple terms it occurs when your computer is not able to complete an input/output operation on the drive which you are accessing for transferring of the data or anything which you’re CD cannot use or recognize at all. But dealing with this error problem is not an insurmountable task as the following simple steps would ensure the rectification of the problem ultimately.

Check for a Defective Disc – First check for any defective disc in your PC, as the message is prompted if the CD disc in use is covered with dust particles which in turn pass it on to your CD drive and also check for any fingerprints on the drive, then clean the sides by wiping from inner parts to outer edges, insert the disc and try again.

Check for the Defective Drive in your PC, which you can make out when it is not able to read the disc inserted, but the CD is able to run on drives of other systems; and this requires cleaning up or repair of the drive.

Check for Incorrect Transfer Mode – One might be trying an incorrect transfer mode which in turn does not allow the removable drive to recognize the copy or transfer technique used by operating system and this requires immediate alteration of some of the IDE properties. To rectify this problem, go to ‘My Computer’, select “Manage” and select Device Manger from it. Check for the CD or DVD drive in the ATA/ATAPI list, select the particular drive (device 1) and opt for properties. Then go to “Advanced Setting” and select “Transfer Mode” in which choose “PIO only”. Then press OK while returning to the main screen and restart the system.

If even after this, the error is not rectified, go back to the drive properties again and choose “DMA if available” for device 1. For device 0, select “PIO only”. Close the windows and restart the computer.
Check for loose cables in your system by checking for wiring and connections of hard disk and the CD, and try removing and reconnecting them, and copying the files again.

Keep updating CD drivers always by downloading the latest CD drivers otherwise the operating system could not recognize them. After downloading, restart the computer, transfer some files and check for the presence of the error. To effectively deal with I/O device error, try downloading the updated files frequently released by Windows and the OSs to check for incompatibility problem.

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Mining In Chile – The Pros And Cons


On 13th October 2010, the last of 33 miners trapped by an accident at the San Jose copper-gold mine near Copiapo, Chile was winched to safety. He had been at a depth of 2,300 feet below ground level. He had spent 69 days trapped underground with his companions after a shaft collapsed at the notoriously dangerous mine where the deaths of 8 miners had been reported over the last 12 years.

This high publicity incident was a catalyst for Chile’s mining regulation agency to bring the hammer down, closing 18 mines within days and scheduling a further 300 for closure. It’s easy to condemn Chilean mining as unsafe and exploitative, but what are the real pros and cons of the industry?

Pros

1) Mining is a great source of income for Chilean workers

Chilean copper mine workers are among the highest-paid miners in South America. However, inflated wages are used to entice workers to mines with poor safety records, as in the case of San Jose; mine workers were paid around 20% more for their troubles.

2) Generally Chilean mines have a good safety record

San Jose is an example of a smaller mine at which standards are known to slip. However, the larger mines generally owned by multi-nationals or the state copper mining company, Codelco, run a tighter ship.

3) Mining brings the benefits of a strong economy to Chileans

Currently enjoying a strong economic status, the population of Chile have good reason to be thankful for the mining industry. Over a third of government income due to exports come from copper alone. One notable benefit of the economic surplus from copper mining is the use of government funds to pay for reconstruction after the 2010 Chilean earthquake.

Cons

1) Inadequate government resources are available to monitor the industry

Between 2004 and 2010, the San Esteban Mining Company (owner of the San Jose mine) received 42 fines for breaching safety regulations. Why was the San Jose accident allowed to happen? Due to budget constraints, there were only three inspectors for the Atacama Region’s 884 mines. Despite a very immediate public response to correct the problems that led to the San Jose disaster, the government still has much to do to bring the industry under control.

2) It isn’t all wine and roses economically

Copper is a highly volatile commodity on the international markets, experiencing increases and decreases in value of up to 50% during the 1980’s. The Chilean government have established a Stabilization Fund to put aside the surpluses of good years to cover the shortfall of others, but the unpredictability of such a core element of the entire country’s economy is a great source of risk.

3) Environmental concerns

Copper mining produces 99 tons of waste for every ton of usable material. When you consider the usable copper output of Chile, that’s a lot of waste.

It isn’t often that Latin American countries get to reap the benefits of their natural resources, and Chile is a good example of a country that turns it’s rich mineral deposits into benefits that reach the population. However, in the rush to make the most of what it’s got, Chile has lost control of the smaller players in the mining industry, and it’s any one’s guess if they will be able to rein things in to the point where accidents like San Jose are a distant memory.

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Source by Gary Sargent

5 ways to safeguard your cashflow


Money or hard cash is an important element of any profit generating organization. An organization’s resources produce income, which alternatively generates cash inflows. These cash inflows are employed for numerous reasons – to payoff creditors, to pay employees compensation, reward shareholders, replacement of technologies and resources, and provide for growth.

Cash is unique and important since it is the only asset that is easily convertible into any other type of asset. Hence, it is also the most commonly desired asset in any organization. But, on the other hand, cash is also the asset that is for the most part at risk to fraud and abuse. Consequently, management must make sure that sufficient controls and safeguards have to be in place to eradicate any unlawful transactions with cash.

Luckily, there are methods management can safeguard the cash produced by its organization. Following are the methods that will facilitate management to avoid losses because of human error or theft:

  • Monthly bank reconciliation
  • Separation of duties over cash handling
  • Liability for cash shortages
  • Authoritative cash disbursement
  • Internal audits

Monthly bank reconciliation – Monthly bank reconciliation will facilitate to make sure that the amount produced by an organization is consistent with bank records. Moreover to this, an independent evaluation by management will give an additional safeguard.

Separation of duties over cash handling – In order to eradicate any unauthorized transactions with cash, every organization must ensure that there is sufficient separation of duties over cash handling. Separation of duties will stop an individual from committing and concealing fraud and abuse.

Liability for cash shortages – If supervisors know that they will be held liable for a cash shortage, they will be provoked to keep a close eye on how cash is employed within their departments. And, management should hold supervisors liable for cash shortages.

Authoritative cash disbursement – Management should employ a method to track cash usage. And in order to do this, management must let cash to be pay out only through checks issued by authorized signatories.

Internal audits – Every organization must have to conduct internal audits on a regular basis. An internal audits, whether it is conducted by an internal audit staff or an outside auditing firm, will help to identify how efficient and precise the operation is and tell you whether or not any enhancement are needed.

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Architecture Of Ancient Greece


The traces of ancient Greek architecture can be traced back to the 8th century BC. Since the ancient Greek buildings were made up of clay, wood or mud-brick, no remains have been found of them barring a few ground plans. In fact, almost no sources or descriptions exist about the embryonic Greek buildings. However, most of our present day knowledge about Greek architecture comes from the late archaic period, also known as the Periclean age.

Temples
The temples of ancient Greece were the biggest and most beautiful. They also had a political purpose as they were often built to celebrate civic power and pride, or offer thanksgiving to the patron deity of a city for success in war. Other architectural forms used by the Greeks were the tholos or circular temple, of which the best example is the Tholos of Theodorus at Delphi dedicated to the worship of Athena Pronaia; the propylon or porch, forming the entrance to temple sanctuaries.

The most knowledge about ancient Greek architecture comes form late archaic period (550 – 500 BC), the Periclean age (450 – 430 BC), and the early to pure classical period (430 – 400 BC). Examples of Greek architecture can be drawn from Hellenistic and Roman periods and from written sources such as Vitruvius (1st century).

Although the ancient Greeks erected buildings of many types, the Greek temple best exemplifies the aims and methods of Greek architecture. The temples were quite different from the modern day church as the altar generally stood in front of the open sky, directly in front of the temple. The temples generally served as storage places and the inner rooms of the temples were mainly strongrooms.

In addition to temples, the Greeks also built a number of other kinds of structures. Their public spaces included monumental tombs; agoras, in ancient Greece, the public square or marketplace of a city.

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What’s the Difference Between DS3 and T3 Bandwidth?


Don’t be confused about the difference between DS3 and T3 circuits. These terms are really synonymous. Instead you should focus on what they can do for you…and the best scenarios for application.

Digital Signal (DS) is a system of classifying digital circuits according to the rate and format of the signal (DS) and the equipment providing the signals (T). DS and T designations have come to be used synonymously so that DS1 implies T1, and DS3 implies T3.

A DS3 line (also known as a T-3) is an ultra high-speed connection capable of transmitting data at rates up to 45 Mbps. A DS3 line is equal to approximately 672 regular voice-grade telephone lines, which is fast enough to transmit full-motion, real-time video, and very large databases over a busy network. A DS3 line is typically installed as a major networking artery for large corporations and universities with high-volume network traffic. Other example applications include large call centers, enterprise wide VoIP and IP PBX systems, Internet service providers, research labs, video conference centers and software development companies. A DS3 is the second fastest, non optical connection offered in North America. A DS3 line is comprised of 28 T1 lines, each operating at total signaling rate of 1.544 Mbps.

DS3 circuits provide businesses and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) with up to 45 Mb/s of dedicated Internet connectivity. This is an ideal solution for users who have outgrown their T1 connections and are in search of unlimited, high-capacity access. A DS3 line actually consists of 672 individual channels, each of which supports 64 Kb/s. DS3 lines are extremely high bandwidth connections into a carrier’s backbone. They typically include SLAs (Service Level Agreements) that guarantee uptime and performance.

The DS3 signal itself is composed of 28 DS1 signals and is constructed using a two-step multiplexing process. First, the 28 DS1 signals are multiplexed into seven DS2 signals. Second, the seven DS2 signals are multiplexed into one DS3 signal. Each multiplexing step uses bit stuffing to handle the different input frequencies. Overhead bits provide alignment, error checking, in-band communications, and bit stuffing control information.

Line rate: 44,736,000 b/s

Signals: 7 DS2 signals = 28 DS1 signals

Overhead bits:

56 bits total/frame

F-bits (framing) 28 bits/

M-bits (multiframing) 3 bits/

C-bits (stuffing) 21 bits

X-bits (message) 2 bits/

P-bits (parity) 2 bits/

Data bits between overhead bits 84

A DS3 connection is comprised up of two monthly charges: the local loop and the port charge. The local loop charge is the cost of the circuit provided by the Local Exchange Carrier (LEC) that allows DS3 access into the carrier’s network. The loop charge is based on the distance from the customer’s location to the edge of the carrier’s network; the farther the customer is from the network, the more the loop will cost. Nearly every carrier prices loops differently so it is in your best interest to price DS3 service with several providers to ensure that you get the best deal.

DS Internet Access is the ideal solution for businesses that require high-bandwidth access at a reduced price. Whether you host high-traffic Web sites, support Web hosting or need high-capacity bandwidth on an as-needed basis, there’s a level of DS3 service (Full or fractional) that will meet your needs. Fractional to full DS3 or T3 circuits run from speeds of 3 Mbps up to 45 Mbps.

For customers that require more bandwidth than a T1 line can provide but do not yet require the capacity of a full DS3 line, a fractional DS3 connection is the ideal solution. A fractional DS3 is similar to a full DS(T)3, only with some of the channels turned off. This reduces the total monthly cost and provides additional capacity that can be turned up in a matter of days. Unfortunately, the DS3 (T) loop is still required for this service.

If a full DS3 line is more bandwidth that you really need, it is also possible to get Fractional DS3, which gives you a portion of full DS3 bandwidth at a lower cost. Of course, DS3 is also available in multiples to increase bandwidth, similar to bonded T1 service.

DS3 service can be deployed for a wide verity of applications. The most common uses are DS3 point-to-point, DS3 internet, DS3 frame relay, DS3 voice and DS3 VPN. The pricing for these connections varies widely depending on the carrier, location of service and the application for which the connection is being used. Visit DS3 Bandwidth Solutions to obtain current „real time“ rate quotes for your location.

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Source by Michael Lemm

School Software by Stellar Data Solution


With the increase in complexity the manual management of School Administration has become difficult. Skoolmanager is software by Stellar Data Solution Pvt. Ltd also called as school software, has been developed to reduce redundancy, inefficiency, mismanagement from any department of school. Skoolmanager, a school administration software has been automates the process of admission, attendance, fee, timetable in such a way that user with a little computer knowledge can do all this in an efficient manner. School administration software comprises 12 models that automate all the departments of educational institution. With school software, School administration can get any real time information. School administration software is an error free software that has been designed in such a way that it take cares all the necessities of the educational institutions.  School administration software comprises 12 distinct modules that automate all the departments of school. School administration software can also be used for academy management, College administration or any other educational institute management. Owing to its special and best features Skoolmanager is also called as an ERP of School. School administration software is flexible, easy to use, and cheap has been developed by an expert team of Stellar Data Solutions Pvt. Ltd. Provides a comprehensive solution to the entire problems in the way of efficient and easy management of every department of the school. School software is very much helpful for teachers because teachers can handle student attendance, grading or marks obtained by various students in a class in an efficient way. 

School administration software is also helpful in library management. Librarian can handle the library efficiently without any manual management. Librarian can keep track record of the books issued to students, remaining books in the library. With school software any addition or deletion of book in library stock is quite easy. 

School administration software is also helpful for time table management of school. It helps in allocation of subjects to teachers, number of lectures that teacher schedules to deliver. With School administration software you can mention the exams held in your school and grade or marks obtained by each student in the examination.  

Payroll management is a big burden on HR department of school. School software has been integrated with the best features that it automatically calculates the working days, salary cut or any other deductions like PF etc. The Fee Module of School administration software 2.7 is the one of the most automated fee calculation module available in the market. It automatically calculates fee, pending fee, deductions or concessions, the varying mode of fee payments.

School administration software is also helpful for inventory purpose. All the wear and tear of the school can be calculated automatically and it also presents a very clear picture of profit and loss. That’s why school software By Stellar Data Solutions is also called ERP of School or any educational institute. Yet there are other school administration software’s available in the market but Due to its special features like flexibility, cheap price, and easy to use, error-free skoolmanager has an edge over others. Our world wide customers are very happy with the use of our software. For More details Contact us at: http://skoolmanager.com/contact_us.php

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Source by Sukhdeepak Singh

Find Out the Best Litecoin Brokers


Searching the best litecoin brokers that can help you through your trading can be a daunting task; however, with the help of the litecoin brokers reviews you know which the brokerage firms that you can trust are. Litecoin, a decentralized online currency, can be used to purchase internet services, such as website development or goods, etc. with ease.

Litecoin also provides merchants with a safe and easy way to accept money, as there are no fees when sending or receiving funds. It is like Bitcoin, another digital currency that is making a lot of news. Here users will also find that all payments are recorded via an online system, otherwise known as the blockchain.

Needless to say litecoin very much like Bitcoin enables the payment receiver to immediately verify the payment and the user, without having to research it all by hand. The best litecoin brokers can be extremely helpful for you if you are trading the digital currency and wish to make profits buying and selling in whatever amount.

As it appears crystal clear that whatever the traders or ordinary users need, litecoins can be a great way to make online purchases. For instance, the digital currency can help them protect their own finances by protecting them from inflation and other external influences that might affect the value. Thus, litecoin has emerged as a real valuable option for money.

Best Litecoin Brokers with Attractive Offers

As litecoins can be used worldwide, by anyone, these are also being used as trading assets by a lot of traders. However, as there are only a few brokerage firms that offer litecoin trading, it is important for traders that they find only the best litecoin brokers. Like using Bitcoin is easy, the traders also expect that the best litecoin brokerage firm also offers cheap brokerage charges.

The fees experienced by Litecoin users are significantly lower when compared to that of credit card companies and bank transfers; however, trading becomes expensive if done with the brokerage firm that has higher brokerage charges. Litecoin trading can become a costly affair if the brokerage charges are unaffordable.

Similarly, it is worth noting that there will only ever be 84 million litecoins, so you don’t need to worry about inflation that may affect the overall value of the currency the traders have. Needless to say many people make exchanges using litecoins, with millions of trades happening every day.

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Source by Andrew Jones

The Top 3 Reasons to Stay Away From Forex Robots


It seems like everybody in the forex trading world is absolutely fascinated with forex robots. People are either spending thousands of hours trying to create one or thousands of dollars buying one. After all, who would not want to make money forex trading, without having to do the actual work. But there are a few things wrong with forex robots:

1) The markets are just too complicated . The forex market is just not (for a lack of a better word) programmable. You can not insert a piece of software to trade for you on autopilot and expect to become rich overnight. Trading is a little more intricate than that. More traders need to start getting off of this „mechanical“ mindset.

2) Do not You Think There Would Be More Success Stories? It seems to me that if most of these forex robots worked, there would be a higher percentage of traders having success in the market. As it stands right now, 95% of forex traders are losing money. If there were traders who were using the same trading robots and using the same parameters for entering and exiting a trade, would not it stand to reason that more people would be successful? After all, there are no emotions involved, and everybody is trading off the same entries and exits.

3) You Can not Trust Your Broker . Let’s face it. We all need our broker, but I would not trust mine as far as I could throw them. When you use a trading robot, you are not in control of your own trades. This means that you have to be able to trust the broker to enter and exit trades according to your automated robot. That is what I like to call a giant leap of faith. In fact, I suggest you look at all the forex forums that are out there and see how many traders have demoed a given forex robot, and had a lot of success, but when they used that robot to trade for real money, all of a sudden they were losing pips. It’s funny how that works, does not it?

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Source by John Templeton

The Account or Ripple Wine


Ripple wine is an affordable and fortified wine firstly popularized in the Sixties & Nineteen Seventies. It had been produced by E & J Gallo Winery and was favored for its small price and high alcohol element. It is generally considered with other low-cost prepared wines as being among those that are used in order to attain drunkenness. This kind of wine has a sentimental value for those who had their first experience of wine from rippled glass bottle and in this way it got added with Ripple in its name, it doesn’t matter what repute it has.

Ripple wine reached the peak of its acceptance in the Nineteen Seventies and was commonly utilized by common people. It was talked in pop culture of the time and made its existence into many movies and TV channels. It functions quite a lot of sweetie and synthetic dyes and flavors, and boasted an alcohol element of nearly 20 percent, which makes it a favorite among those trying to find a buzz.

It carries a standard status among popular wine due to its attractiveness among the drunks. It was also favored by immature drinkers who could with no trouble get their much loved condition of drunkenness from just one bottle of Ripple.

The wine came in a wierd array of tastes, together with Pagan, Ripple Ruby, and Champipple, which was a blend of flavored wine and champagne. These essence are fairly just like wine coolers and were manufactured to mask the powerful alcohol savor of the wines.

Unlike exceptional wines, high end dinning table wines and festive libations, these wines weren’t designed to be drink with foods. They weren’t exceptionally savory and did not bear any of the traits of exceptional aged wine. Getting intoxication by spending less cash is the principle service by them.Comparable stuffs are available in marketplace but the the initial wines are usually not manufactured these days. MD 20/20 is perhaps probably the most much like Ripple accessible in the stores nowadays. The wines created with the MD 20/20 brand are correspondingly sweet and high in alcohol based element. Furthermore their names are usually unique, recognized and informal.

While Ripple wine will never be exalted among the wine admirer unity, it absolutely bears its space in the narration of wine. The occasional sealed bottle can still be present in sales and the like, and the empty rippled glass bottles that once held equipped wine can take a good value at auction as well.

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Source by Justin Cooper