Traffic Fines in South Africa a Joke?

In South Africa outstanding traffic fines have become a major issue, the police are arresting people in random roadblocks all over the country. The Cops work to make a killing off of motorists and South African drivers by fining citizens as a simple way to create a much needed but dirty flow of cash from the citizens.

Many motorists feel these fines are invalid and should have never been alleged in the 1st place It doesn’t matter your guilt or innocence, the police are required to follow strict policies and guidelines when it comes to fining for traffic violations

Recently in the news media and in the news papers, the abuse of power has been highlighted. Mnet’s Carte‘ Blanche and SABC3 Special Assignment have done cover storeis uncovering the entire racket we are now witnessing. Are your traffic fines valid or, are they just an easy way for the police to buck the system and stick their hands in your pockets?

This is clearly an issue of money.

What makes a Fine Valid?

The police know how easy it is to win in court. Citizens rarely raise a fuss. So, they are quick to make mistakes.. Its an issue of Rands, not enforcing the traffic laws.

The Metro Police typically avoid this argument.

Here are things that MUST be considered when validating a Traffic Fine:

– Checking that the fines don’t have irregularities before sending them.
– Using faulty or un-calibrated speed measuring equipment.
– Tampering with photographic evidence to make you look guilty.
– Not keeping or logging information required for prosecution when issuing fines.

Before paying any outstanding traffic violations, these are just some of the hundreds of issues you must consider.

Don’t pay for fines you don’t deserve. Did you know that irregularities like those listed above would likely cause your case to be thrown out of court? Don’t make the police’s job easy.

It is reported that around 80% -90% of traffic fines issued in South Africa when speed measuring devices are used have some form of irregularities found on them. This is shocking and disturbing and should not be overlooked.

Note that none of the above irregularities listed stop the Metro Police from sending you a notice of infringement AARTO traffic fine.

Unfortunately, the issues we are talking about here are rarely overseen or closely regulated. Once you’ve admitted to a fine, you would not be able to claim a refund if the courts ruled that your traffic fines issued were invalid.

{Is there any real justice?|Where is the justice in that?|When will we see justice? I hope you will take a stand and become informed. Join forums and subscribe to newsletters that educate about our rights.

Learn all you would ever need to know about getting your traffic fines dropped. It is entirely ethical and legal.

Don’t pay for invalid fines. Learn your rights! Be aware of the law.

Visit my website for more South African Traffic Fine Secrets.

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The Basics of Money

What is Money?

The answer to the question is simple. Money is anything widely used for paying debts owed by a person to someone else and also for receiving the payments of debts owing to a person from someone else. A country produces coins and banknotes, (accepted by everyone) for the payment of bills and for the receipt of money owing.

Money is what is known as a „medium of exchange“.

In the „old days“ people traded the goods and services they owned (and probably produced) for goods and services owned by others (probably produced by them). The scenario went something like this – „you give me two sacks of your potatoes and I will trade you ten of my fish“.

This method of trading was fine for a while. As society developed, business became more cumbersome and inefficient with this method of trade. Business dealings became stilted and slow and lagged behind the new pace of commerce. There had to be a better way. Some bright spark then came up with the idea of a common „medium of exchange“ easier to carry around and better to use.

Money was born.

It wasn’t that simple, because while all sorts of things were used as a medium of exchange, these were all basically called „money“ and it wasn’t until coins and paper notes were developed that money as we know it today became the standard accepted as a medium of exchange.

Forms of Money

There are various forms of money – cheques, IOU’s, credit cards, bank drafts or gold. Gold was the standard used in the past because of its scarcity and its qualities. Gold is resistant to corrosion or damage. These unique properties, as well as the scarcity of gold means that even today, wealthy people around the world would rather keep their wealth in gold holdings than in the currencies of countries which are subject to inflation.

In fact, all sorts of things have been used as money throughout the ages. Some include: beads, eggs, salt, pigs, leather, yarn, axes, ivory and jade. Today we have another form of money, which cannot be touched, and yet it as real as the tangible coins we are able to touch. This form of money is electronic money.

The Name „Money“

The word money comes from the Roman goddess – Moneta. Apparently coins were minted in her temples and issued to the world, as the Romans knew it at the time. The Latin word „Moneta“, (meaning mint or coins) came from the old English word „mynet“ (meaning coins or money) and from this came the English word „mint“.

Origins of Money

To understand the origins of money we have to go back to a time well before money came on the scene. Money did not suddenly appear – it was introduced gradually in response to the requirements of human needs. As civilization grew and expanded beyond local societies, the need to exchange the products provided by various groups became evident. The hunter needed to exchange with the farmer, the shepherd needed to exchange with the medicine man etc.

The medium of exchange that was necessary to enable the various groups to barter and swap their products was money. It was originally a physical substance like gold or silver. Sometimes it was a substance that was alive such as cattle, which was one of the oldest forms of money.

Today, although much of the money used by individuals in their everyday life is still in the form of notes and coins, its quantity is relatively small compared to the intangible types of money existing as entries in bank records.

Today money exists in the form of digital cash and such things as coins and bank notes will soon become obsolete. When this happens, the change in the nature of money will have a significant effect on our society.

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Handling and Storing Your Bullion Coin

Bullion coins are some of the most beautiful objects to collect. Since all bullion coins are minted from precious metals that are easily susceptible to tarnish or markings from mishandling or exposure to the environment, proper storing and handling of bullion coins are important to preserve their beauty and collectible (some say resale) value. We can even went as far as to surmise that collecting bullion coins requires skills, knowledge and investment far more advanced than normal coin collecting as proper know how in acquisition, storage method and handling  is essential to preserve the value of your coin portfolio. Because bullion coins are generally high priced, a single tarnish, scratch mark or even thumb print could devalue the coin very substantially, in the case of Proofs or Brilliant Uncirculated(BU) coins, to less than half of its original value.

The first and foremost rule in handling bullion coins is to handle them as less often as possible, better yet, never at all. Gold bullion coins can easily show dent marks or scratch even from the slightest „accidents“ as gold are very soft and malleable metal, this is more prevalent with coins that have exceptionally high purity like the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf (.9999 fineness). Silver on the other hand is notorious for being easily tarnished when exposed to even minute amounts of moisture in air or even human skin. Therefore if you must handle your coin, there is a few guidelines that should be taken into consideration:

1. Hold your coin by its edges, never touch the surface of the coin with your bare fingers as the acidity of human skin would result in color change or wear marks that would tarnish the surface of the coin. Preferably, wear a soft cotton glove when handling bullion coins.

2. Be very careful not to drop, bump or rub your coin against hard surfaces as this might easily result in dents or scratch marks, place foam or soft pads on the table when you are examining the coin to prevent the coin from scratches, ensure that the environment that the coin comes into contact with is dry, clean and free of contaminants.

3. Never breath onto the coin surface, the moisture from human breaths can cause discoloration which would be hard to remove if ever possible at all.

There are many solution offered in the market in storing and displaying your coin collection, in fact nowadays many fresh-out-of-the-mint bullion coins comes in plastic containers that does an excellent job in protecting your investment.

1. For display and short term storage purposes for lower value coins,  coin albums and flips provide adequate protection and effective display for large selection of coin, however since albums and flips are not fully air tight, the coins might suffer discoloration from air moisture and contaminant after long periods of time. Therefore this method cannot be applied for the more valuable coins of your collection. One should also take note that the coin albums and flips should not be made of PVC as PVC decompose when reacting the heat and light , the resulting chemical reaction releases hydrochloric acid which will slowly render your coins worthless!!!

2. The most common and economical solution is to use 2×2 cardboard containers lined with Mylar plastics, the coin can be placed on the Mylar and the container can be fold over to enclose the coin and snapped shut. This provide a high level of protection at an affordable price for the majority of your coin collection.

3. For the most valuable coins in your collection, a coin slab provides maximum protection against the elements albeit at a steeper investment, they are made from hermetically sealed hard plastic holders in which individual coins are encased.

Practicing proper care in handling and storing bullion coins is very similar to learning how to protect your financial investment, which in the long run can insure you against disappointment and protection from serious financial losses due to deterioration of your coin collection, therefore making your coin collecting experience much more rewarding.

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The Importance of Learning Spanish Grammar

It is important to learn proper Spanish grammar when you learn to speak and write the language. However, knowing grammar by itself will not make you a fluent speaker. Most courses in the language integrate the grammar with other aspects, such as the vocabulary and the proper pronunciation. One of the things you will realize about the grammar is that all nouns have a definite or indefinite article in front of them. In English you would simply say girl or boy. This is not so in Spanish. Girl is a chica?and boy is l chico? You cannot just say hica?or hico? All nouns are either masculine or feminine and there is no neuter gender as there is in English.

Just as there are rules for making nouns plural in English, there are also rules of grammar for this in Spanish. These are:

– If a noun ends in a vowel, add ?to make it plural. You must also make the definite or indefinite article plural as well. El becomes los and la becomes les.

– If a noun ends in a consonant, adds?to make the word plural.

– If a noun ends in on, you adds?but you drop the accent mark on the letter ?

– If a noun ends with the letter ? you change the ?to ?and adds?

There are only three categories of verbs in Spanish ?those ending in and To conjugate a verb from its infinitive form, you still use the same pronouns as you do in English. There are rules for conjugating each category of verb according to the subject pronoun, which are important for you to learn. While all verbs end in ?when you want to use the pronoun ? they differ when you use the singular form of ou? which is sted?in Spanish. In order to conjugate the verbs with this pronoun, the rule is to add ?when you are using an ?verb and to use ?when you use an or verb.

Adjectives follow the noun they describe, rather than the English placement of in front of the noun. The form of the adjectives also changes depending on whether the word being described is masculine or feminine and whether it is singular or plural. Most adjectives end with the letter ?and have four forms ?masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular and feminine plural. There are adjectives that do end in ?and to make them plural you add the letter ? If the adjective ends with a consonant, you adds?to form the plural.

These are just the basics of what is involved in learning grammar when you learn Spanish. Because of the gender it is important to know how to speak and write the language properly so that you won inadvertently insult the person to whom you are speaking or writing. When you are taking a course, your instructor will gladly assist you in knowing when and where to use the words properly.

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What's the Difference Between Permanent and Whole Life Insurance

Whole life insurance is a type of permanent insurance, and both of these have terms lasting until the end of the insured’s life, as opposed to term life insurance, which, as the name suggests, only covers the life of the insured for a specified term . Put simply, permanent life insurance always pays out to the beneficiary, because the end of its term is the death of the insured; term life insurance only pays out if the insured dies during the allotted time period. The former is substantially-sometimes tenfold-more expensive than the latter, but term life insurance renewal is often costly, since at the end of the term the insured person is older and therefore represents a higher risk. This is especially true of life insurance for seniors, as one might imagine, since their chances of payout are higher.

Whole life insurance, also known as cash surrender life insurance, is considered a solid investment. Given consistent upkeep, it accumulates value on a tax-deferred basis, just as an education or retirement fund does. With whole life insurance, the insured may use the policy as collateral, borrow against it or even borrow from it-again, just as with a bank account. If the insured borrows from it, say to build a dream retirement home, the end cash payout obviously will be lower for the named beneficiary / ies, unless the borrowed amount is repaid. And, if the insured is unable to continue paying into the policy, then just like a bank account, it might still have a payout to beneficiaries, depending on when the payout is. The insurance company providing whole life insurance also folds its dividends directly into the policy (provided the company is profitable), providing a secondary increase in value over time.

Another type of permanent insurance is variable life insurance. Here, the life insurance policy is more of a stock portfolio than a savings account, and its value varies with the value of the investments chosen to support it. At the end of the insured’s life, the portfolio is paid out to the beneficiary / ies; depending on the risk level of the chosen investments, the benefit may either erode or grow over time.

With universal life insurance, the insured pays a base initial amount, and then makes payments within a range set by the insurance provider. This type of policy is usually less costly, but it is important to understand that the range of minimum and maximum payments may change over time, depending on the health of the provider, its investments or other terms. Therefore, the account requires more attention than other forms of permanent insurance.

Finally, variable universal life (VUL) insurance is another tax-free account in which terms and payments can vary as needed. In it, flexible premiums may be invested in a variety of areas and accounts, coverage may be increased or decreased, and investments may be transferred between accounts without tax ramifications. Because the policyholder retains more of the risk than the insurance provider, VUL policies often have less costly upkeep fees than many other types of policies. On the other hand, it is also a combination of all of the flexibility possible within the permanent life insurance category.

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Nexus S first impressions

DesignThe Nexus S’s candy-bar design is fairly standard–it resembles many of its Galaxy S siblings–but it shows a few unique elements and it’s worlds apart from the Nexus One. It’s larger and lighter than its ancestor, and it sports an all-black plastic skin with a very faint design on the rear face. We admit, we’re a bit divided LCD Monitor on the appearance. It’s shiny and pretty, but the Nexus S feels too fragile in the hand. Remember that the Nexus One had some metal parts, which gave it a sturdy feel. We’re not saying the Nexus S feels cheap, but we’d be wary of dropping it on a hard surface. Also, the plastic surface and the display attract fingerprints like crazy.Below the display sit the four Android touch controls (menu, search, back, and home).

Unlike with the Nexus One, you don’t get a navigation trackball; we missed that trackball just a bit. Fortunately, the camera on the rear side is almost flush with the back of the phone–other Android handsets have a protruding lens–and it sits next to the bright flash. The second camera lens is on the front side just above the bright display. Other exterior features consist of a thin volume rocker on the left spine and a power control on the right spine. The 3.5mm headset jack and Micro-USB port sit on the phone’s bottom end. Though it’s not a huge deal, we’d prefer those ports to be up top.Samsung is highlighting the Nexus S‘ „contour“ design in its promotional materials. To you that means that the front of the device, display included, is slightly concave. The idea is to make it more comfortable to hold the phone against the side of your head. We’re not so impressed, though.

The curve is so slight that we didn’t notice any difference. We may feel differently after days of use, but the curve seems like a gimmick so far.InterfaceLike its predecessor, the Nexus S offers a straight Google experience uncluttered LCD Monitors by a manufacturer’s custom interface or a set of carrier-installed apps. Make no mistake that this is a phone for users who want the Android OS served up straight and simple. Indeed, we’ve always been fans of „letting Android be Android,“ so we’re not going to fault Sammy and Google for going this route. Even with Gingerbread, seasoned Android users will find few new elements. The Super AMOLED display is a little sharper than on the Nexus One, though not too dissimilar from the Galaxy S series. A few of the onscreen icons look different, but the main menu has the „crawl“ design where icons disappear into the background.

Five home screens are available for customization.GingerbreadWe’re still exploring the full details of the new OS, though we did try the new copy and paste. When using a long press to select words in paragraph, you’re now given an option to select just the word you’re touching rather than the whole block of text. Then, you’ll see new arrows for grabbing just the words you want. It may sound like a small change, but it makes a huge improvement in usability. The virtual keyboard also has some small-but-welcome tweaks.FeaturesWe’ll need time to check out the phone’s features, but we can offer a list of the Nexus S‘ offerings as a refresher. When taken as a whole, you’ll see many of the features available in the Nexus One, though the Nexus S adds a near field communications (NFC) chip, the aforementioned Touch Screen second camera, a gyroscope for gaming, and a 1Ghz Hummingbird processor (the Nexus One had a 1Ghz Snapdragon processor). That’s not a bad lot, but we were hoping for more from such a showcase device. And we’re not happy about the lack of a microSD card slot, HDMI output, and support for T-Mobile’s HSPA+ network.

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Steam Room Benefits

The benefits of the steam room have been known for thousands of years and throughout history countless people have been using steam to enhance their sense of well being and improve their overall health. At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st a huge influx in health conscious individuals in western society has fuelled a vast growth in the health industry.

In the past, steam rooms have been restricted to health clubs and gyms, and many think steam rooms are only used at home by the wealthy; however top steam room specialists have made this wonderful past time available to everybody, not just the rich. With cutting edge technology at affordable prices, countless people are now enjoying all the wonderful benefits of a steam room.

Brief Overview of Steam Room Benefits

In a steam room, wet heat opens the pores of your skin to aid body detoxification. A steam generator is used to create water vapour at high levels of humidity. The heat and humidity may bring health benefits ranging from aiding stress relief, to body cleansing, to soothing aching muscles or arthritis. This article will highlight the main benefits and the importance of using a steam room:

1st Steam Room Benefit: Eliminate toxins

The average body has approximately 2.6 million sweat glands. The body only has four ways to excrete toxins; urine, feces, respiration and perspiration. During a steam room session the body can sweat out up to 30% of its toxins that have built up. Studies have shown that environmental chemicals and poor diet cause 95% of cancers, which in today’s society makes a steam room a very healthy and practical addition to the home.

2nd Steam Room Benefit: Rejuvenate and Hydrate the Skin

Heat from the steam causes the heart to beat faster and harder in an attempt to cool the body, causing blood to flood even the smallest capillaries. Increased blood flow to these tiny capillaries (just under the skins surface) causes the skin to glow and look healthy because the blood cells carry minerals, vitamins and oxygen: vital for a healthy body. In addition, this increases the rate of body metabolism.

3rd Steam Room Benefit: Boost the immune system: Hyperthermia

Hyperthermia refers to an elevation of core body temperature to above 37.2°C for therapeutic purposes. During a steam room session the body temperature rises and when the body temperature rises it is called a fever (elevation of body temperature above the normal level). A virus can only usually survive within a narrow temperature range. Therefore an increase in body temperature may either stunt the virus‘ multiplication or kill the virus. Fever triggers the body to release white blood cells, antibodies and a protein called interferon. The white blood cells, which are produced in the bone marrow, help to defend the body against infectious diseases and foreign materials. Antibodies are proteins which help protect against disease-causing micro-organisms whilst interferon is any group of proteins produced by cells in the body in response to an attack by a virus.

4th Steam Room Benefit: Enhance the Respiratory System

Steam inhalation supports mucosal secretions in the respiratory system and helps to open up the airways therefore reducing respiration resistance. This helps to relieve the discomfort of asthma and allergies. Steam room benefits also include relieving inflammation and congestion of upper respiratory mucous membranes. It also helps to loosen secretions, stimulate the discharge of mucous from the throat and lungs (natural expectorant) and keeps mucous membranes from excessive drying.

5th Steam Room Benefit: Relieve Stress and Relax Muscles

Heat from the steam causes the muscles to relax, widening the blood vessels, allowing more oxygen to flow to them, releasing their tension. The heat also gives relief to sufferers of arthritis. The heat from the steam causes the whole body to relax; this experience melts away stress and soothes the mind & body.

David Daniel is a successful writer in the subjects of home improvement and bathroom renovation providing the consumer information on Steam Shower rooms and Sauna units. To view more articles visit: Steam Room Benefits. He also writes articles for Di Vapor Steam Showers

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Microsoft Dynamics ERP Selection – GP, AX, NAV, SL and CRM

Microsoft Dynamics ERP has four products GP, NAV, AX and SL. It has separate solution for CRM known as Microsoft Dynamics CRM. In these Microsoft Dynamics products one may come across serious over lapping of solutions and it is really hard to find the realistic logic behind four products with almost similar solutions.

Microsoft AX was previously known as Axapta till Microsoft took over it and released the version with the name of Microsoft Dynamics AX. This ERP solution is focused towards companies having several divisions and doing business across locations where compliance of business processes and best practices is a must. Microsoft AX can be easily customized to adapt for business processes and is cost effective along with this it comes with features to automate and provide solutions for finance, human resource, sales, web stores, supply chain management, warehouses, distribution, balanced scorecards, knowledge management and business analytics. As it has been upgraded and designed to work at distant locations it supports multi lingual and multi currency functions.

Microsoft GP previously known as great plains, is an adaptable ERP solution for changing market and business requirements. It is primarily focused towards mid size companies and divisions of larger enterprises. It is capable of connecting business processes across the organization and supporting unique business processes. It also comes with strong and adaptable applications for finance, supply chain management, human resource, manufacturing, distribution and project accounting. Integration capabilities with in the application and other applications are immense in Microsoft Dynamics GP, it uses biztalk server, com. MSMQ and web services for high speed, flexible and safe data incorporation and integration from any source.

Microsoft Dynamics NAV comes with strong financial features and helps small and midsize companies to streamline specialized and industry specific business processes. It is easy to use and adapt, it comes with add on tools and NAV utilities which help programmers and database administrators to customize it with convenience and quickly according to the clients needs. Microsoft NAV comes with complete functionality for finance, SCM, CRM, service, distribution and e-commerce. It also provide the feature of role tailored or role center where screens are customized by removing irrelevant fields and information to make it easier to understand, work and comply with company policies and practices.

Microsoft Dynamics SL previously Solomon is mainly focused on project based and distribution centric enterprises. Its project accounting and project management feature help project based companies to manage their on premise projects separately and projects at different locations. Project management option of SL provides facilities of material planning, job cost, material management to lower cost, service call and handle complex jobs with out project delays to improve customer satisfaction. For distribution based companies it provides features to reduce over and under inventory, reduce distribution cost by transport management and streamlining of processes.

Microsoft Dynamics CRM comes with solutions for sales, customer service and marketing. Along with features like leads, opportunity, pipeline management it allows its data to be accessed by the sales team from any web enabled device in real time and analyze it, with in built reports for better decisions. It helps in designing work flows to avoid redundancy, plan and analyze customer data for better services and sales calls. Tracking and importing of data from other sources is easy. Over all this is complete CRM solution for any company.

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Spying Cell Phones and IMEI Codes: The End Of Privacy – Protect Yourself

If someone has access to your cell phone and IMEI code, for just a few minutes, your life can become an open book! Some spy software is so sophisticated that it records conversations in the vicinity of the phone, even when you are not using it. Text messages that have been erased are easy to get at with inexpensive spy technology. Read on to learn a way to protect yourself from this invasion of privacy and what you should do if you think you are being spied on through your cell phone.

To protect yourself you must understand the basics of this technology and how it works. The spy needs two things: the IMEI code for your phone and software to connect with that code. IMEI stands for International Mobile Equipment Identity and is a number unique to each mobile device. It is found in the battery compartment of each phone and is 15 digits long. There are three places the spy can get the IMEI number:

  1. – From the phone contract. It was on my iPhone 4 contract.
  2. – From the battery case. It was in my iPhone 4 battery compartment.
  3. – By simply dialing #06# on the phone. This worked on my iPhone 4.

Spy cell phone software is inexpensive and available on hundreds of Internet sites. It is easy to install and can be downloaded directly from the Internet to your phone in seconds. The combination of software installed on your phone and the IMEI number make you a sitting duck for any kind of surveillance activity. The spy can now monitor your activities from a home computer or a smart phone. If you have something to hide – beware!

Is the use of this software legal? Yes, if you own the phone. Websites selling these products always have a disclaimer stating that they will not be responsible for illegal uses of the phone while at the same time promoting the software activities that do not appear to be legal. Because the software is undetectable spies are unlikely to be prosecuted.

If you suspect someone may be spying on your cell phone activities, you need to take your phone to your provider and have them clear the memory and restore it to the factory settings. Then guard your phone like it is a credit card that can be used without a password. In other words – don’t share it, even for a minute, with anyone you don’t know and trust.

There are many legitimate uses for the IMEI number and for the spying software and it is unlikely that either will go away. The IMEI number functions like a serial number making it easy to register and ban the resale of stolen phones. Spy software can add provide some security to children and teens while allowing more freedom. Spy software can also be used to find stolen and lost cell phones. As a concerned parent, and a person who sometimes loses his phone, I decided to install spy software on all the family phones.

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Globalization of E-commerce in Business




 1.0 Introduction

2.0 Literature and theories 3.0 Globalization of E-Commerce in Business 4.0 Research Methodology, Data Collection and Analysis 5.0 Future Research 6.0 Conclusion 7.0 References


1.0    Introduction

This paper examines how globalization of e-commerce is impacting business in general. With the increase of internet-based technologies, it has been the reason for recent stimulus globalization. In this Information Age, Internet commerce is a powerful tool in the economic growth of developing countries. While there are indications of ecommerce patronage among large firms in developing countries, there seems to be little and negligible use of the Internet for commerce among small and medium sized firms. E-commerce ensures better business in the SMEs and sustainable development of economics for developing countries. However, this is based on strong political will and good governance with a responsible and supportive private sector within an effective policy framework. As we know the complete definition of E-commerce is the use of electronic communications and digital information processing technology in business transactions to create, transform, and redefine relationships for value creation between or among organizations, and between organizations and individuals. E-commerce allows companies to increase their sales in domestic and foreign operations and the flexibility afforded by the technology also provides less costly opportunities to locate operations strategically. E-commerce not only reduces communication costs, but also increases flexibility in locating activities. Research point indicates that internet technology has led to an increase in international trade (Freund and Weinhold, 2002, 2004). This is the evidence of how it suggests profits from foreign operations have also increased in recent years (Hilsenrath, 2005). In the emerging global economy, e-commerce has increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy being a strong catalyst for economic development. Integration of information and communications technology (ICT) in business has evolved the relationships within organizations and those between and among organizations and individuals. The controversial current social and economic trends are globalization and the widespread adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Many argue that these two trends are closely associated, each driving the other forward, and both being driven by other common forces, such as trade liberalization, deregulation, migration, and the expansion of capitalism and democracy (c.f., Held et al., 1999). Pohjola (2002) argues that the twin forces of globalization and the ICT revolution are combining to create the so-called New Economy, marked by higher rates of economic and productivity growth. „Technology is both driven by and a driver of globalization, as both forces continually reinforce one another“ cited by (Bradley et al., 1993).Specifically,the use of ICT for ecommerce in business has enhanced productivity, encouraged greater customer participation, and enabled mass customization, besides reducing costs.Prior to development in the Internet and Web-based technologies, the distinctions between traditional markets and the global electronic marketplace-such as business capital size, among others-are gradually being narrowed down. Strategic positioning is the ability of a company to determine emerging opportunities and utilize the necessary human capital skills (such as intellectual resources) to make the most of these opportunities through an e-business strategy which is simple, workable and practicable within the context of a global information and new economic environment. Together with the appropriate strategy and policy approach with e-commerce enables small and medium scale enterprises to compete with large capital-rich businesses. On another plane, developing countries are given increased access to the global marketplace, where they compete with and complement of the more developed economies. Most of the developing countries are already participating in e-commerce, either as sellers or buyers. However, to facilitate e-commerce growth in these countries based on globalization phenomenal, the relatively under-developed information infrastructure must be improved. Significantly, economic trend of the past decade is the growing use of the Internet for conducting business. Many firms are being driven toward greater adoption of e-commerce by pressure to compete at the global level. The Internet and e-commerce are part of the process of globalization. Globalization is generally regarded as the increasing interconnectedness of the world through flows of information, capital, and people facilitated by trade and political openness as well as information technology (IT). „Beyond this, however, the nature and impacts of globalization are highly contested“ cited by (Held et al., 1999). Convergence theorists regard globalization as a universal process of homogenization in which countries tend toward a common way of producing and organizing economic life with resulting common social outcomes (Bell, 1973; Ohmae, 1990, 1995). Divergence theorists argue that national diversity in the pursuit of differing social and economic outcomes will prevail and prevent convergence from taking place (Berger & Dore, 1996; Boyer, 1996; Hirst & Thompson, 1996;Wade, 1996). Transformation theorists regard globalization as an uneven process involving elements of both convergence and divergence, in which countries around the world are experiencing a process of profound change as they try to adapt to a more interconnected but uncertain world (Giddens, 1991, 2000). Globalization is being intensified by the spread of the Internet, linking businesses and individuals around the world into a common electronic network. There is great excitement about the Internet’s potential for removing geographical obstacles to economic growth and for achieving global integration in developing as well as in industrialized countries. A related concern is that uneven diffusion of e-commerce and the Internet is creating a „digital divide“ and exacerbating the gap between rich and poor countries referred by Norris, 2001. Therefore, we are interested broadly in understanding the extent to which the Internet and e-commerce are diffusing among different countries, and the nature of their impacts on the globalization debate. However, in this article, we focus more narrowly on identifying the key factors shaping e-commerce diffusion globally in business. This paper examines that global forces such as competition and global production networks are common influences across different countries. Global forces are varied and uneven due to national characteristics such as information infrastructure, business innovation/entrepreneurship and consumer preferences and national policies that create different market and telecommunications regimes—variously driving, facilitating or inhibiting adoption (Boyer, 1996; Wade, 1996;Dedrick & Kraemer, 1998). With reference to International Data Corp (IDC) that estimates the value of global e-commerce in 2000 at US$ 350.38 billion. This is projected to climb to as high as US$3.14 trillion by 2004. IDC also predicts an increase in Asia’s percentage share in worldwide e-commerce revenue from 5% in 2000 to 10% in 2004 (See Figure 1 – Worldwide E-Commerce Revenue, 2000-2004). Asia-Pacific e-commerce revenues are projected to increase from $76.8 billion at year-end of 2001 to $338.5 billion by the end of 2004. Overall, this research makes several contribution, data collection primarily had been done in this paper to analyze on how globalization of e-commerce will benefits business moving forward in the future.

 2.0    Literature and Theories 

A review of principal and current literature on e-commerce is to explore the conceptual relationships of how globalization can give an impact to business electronically. Empirically, E‐Commerce generally refers to the use of the internet for buying and selling activities including advertising, invitation to treat negotiation and conclusion of contracts (Rodgers, Yen and Chou, 2002; Chen and McQueen, 2008; Simpson and Docherty, 2004). E‐Commerce adoption globally was first studied from the information systems perspective rather than the business perspective. The early studies identified critical success and failure factors on implementation of information systems studies on e‐commerce adoption in business with specific geographic focus became popular in the last decade. Studies was conducted on worldwide firms such as Cisco Systems, Dell Computer and General Electric report impressive payoffs by making the Internet a key element in their strategies and business models, and by transforming their „brick-and-mortar“ operations into e-commerce organizations. Cisco Systems and Dell Computer report in excess of 250% return on invested capital and over USD 650,000 in revenue per employee from their e-commerce operations. They had generated the highest gross profit margin in their respective industries. From a survey finding of over 400 information technology managers worldwide, relative to larger firms, smaller businesses who make effective use of Internet opportunities may also find that they are more innovative, faster in responding to environmental demands, and better able to quickly change or adapt business models to gain competitive advantage (Engler 1999). As a result, traditional firms, especially small organizations, are under increasing pressure to follow suit, and to achieve the often-cited benefits of e-commerce. Electronic commerce or e-commerce describes the use of electronic means and platforms to conduct a company’s business quoted by Kotler, 2003. Electronic commerce, also known as e-commerce, is more specific than e-business, it means that in addition to providing information to visitors about the company, its history, policies, products, and job opportunities, the company or site offers to transact or facilitate the selling of products and services online cited by Kotler 2003. Ecommerce is the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically with computerized business transactions using the Internet, networks, and other digital technologies referred by Laudon and Laudon, 2005. E-commerce (EC) builds on the structures of traditional commerce by adding the flexibility offered by electronic networks. Existing research points out that EC can offer readily discerned benefits in comparison to traditional environments through reduced transaction costs and search costs, more competitive product prices (Bakos 1991) and improved transaction efficiency (Srinivasan, Kekre and Mukhopadhyay 1994; Lee and Clark 1996). In the e-commerce research literature, greater levels of e-commerce adoption have been linked with improved organizational performance (Kraemer, Gibbs and Dedrick, 2002). Companies that adopt internet technology in various activities are aware of this benefit and hope to improve competitive advantage, communication, and products and services when they adopt e-commerce (Berrill, Goode and Hart, 2004). Diffusions of Innovation theory (Rogers, 1995) has been used as a basis for exploring e-commerce adoption in multiple studies. Diffusion is defined as the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time (Rogers, 1995). In relation to e-commerce adoption, the adoption of and the success in e-commerce has been tied to organizations‟ risk acceptance and tolerance of uncertainty (Featherman and Pavlou, 2003; Gibbs, Kraemer and Dedrick, 2003) It is important for businesses moving to the business to-business e-Commerce sector to evaluate all aspects of their organization and performance. Based on business need,the factors which will determine successful transformation, and then direct strategy and resources towards those factors.

The literature on e-Commerce adoption by businesses suggests that most research is based on four frameworks:

(1) The diffusion of innovation .

(2) The Technology-Organization-Environment Model

(3) Institutional theory

(4) Resource-based theory

3.0    Globalization of E-commerce in Business

Globalization of the buying behavior refer to organizations which are are open to suppliers from outside the local country.This type of organization are willing to consider foreign suppliers for the goods and services required for their business. Globalization of buying behavior could be highly global in which almost all the requirements of a particular category of goods and services which are sourced from abroad. It cannot be global at all with all services and goods being procured from within the home country as well as various other intermediate possibilities. There are few factors impacting globalization of e-commerce in business. In countries national environment perspective, we investigate each element and how it determines e-commerce diffusion across countries globally:-

1. Population and Demographic

With reference to (Table 1 –Demographic Overview and Urbanization)) and Table 2 (Population) below cited by W. Koenig, R.T. Wigand and R. Beck (2003); what we can summarized is that the German age distribution leans toward an aging population (Table 1) below. The number of inhabitants in Germany, and Europe, will continue to decrease until 2010, whereas in the U.S the population is increasing. In terms of consumer buying and the growth of the Web economy, the proportion of the relevant age group of 15-49 year olds, will decline quoted by [Zerdick et al., 2001]. Prior to (Table 2 – Forecast of Population Changes to 2010) as below, Table 2 shows that Germany’s population will decline in this decade to approximately 78 million inhabitants. A lower population base means fewer consumers and, together with the aging phenomenon, fewer employees in the working age range. As a consequence, the use of e-commerce services and consumption may increase in Germany as well-educated people retire and are likely to experience physical difficulties in moving around.

2. Economy (Gross Domestic Product, GDP)

„Germany is deeply integrated in the global economy“ cited from W. Koenig, R.T. Wigand, and R. Beck (2003). In recent years, however, the conditions for national political actions changed fundamentally due to globalization of markets, and will continue to change. For e-commerce, these changes imply that an open market exists for firms to hire employees. However, firms face legal requirements because of the formal representation of employees, typically through unions. German unions take on a considerably stronger role in a firm’s well being compared to the U.S. Economic output in the U.S is growing rapidly, in spite of the lower economic output in Europe, led to a higher GDP in the U.S. in 1998. Germany was not able to pick up based on upward trend like the U.S. New consumer and investment indices predict a decline for 2001 and the first half of 2002. Refer to (Table 7-Average GDP growth 19915- 2001 for Germany) as above shows the average growth in GDP each year from 1995 to 2001.

6 principles to Guide the Development of Global E-Commerce in Business:

a) Adopt cautious approach to regulation: Allow global e-commerce a period of time to develop before determining which areas will require government action.

Two major threats to global ecommerce. One is to impose legal and regulatory frameworks before gaining a full understanding of the issues and needs involved. Cross border business-to consumer transactions represent a brand new form of trade; the old ways of regulating trade will not work on the Internet. Innovative solutions ranging from international treaties to online dispute resolution may be able to meet the goals of regulation— mitigating the risks to buyers and sellers. Global e-commerce faces many barriers including language, currency, and cultural differences; overseas shipping costs; and national brand identification. If nothing is done, the tendency will be for e-commerce to only happen into local zones, with consumers visiting only sites in their own country or a small number of countries with which they feel comfortable. In order to realize fully the benefits of global e-commerce, governments must help where necessary to reduce the risks of cross border transactions, but it will take time to determine when and where government action can be used effectively.

b) Increase global market access: Maximize opportunities for buyers and sellers to come together in marketplace

Empowering consumers and sellers—especially small enterprises—by expanding market access should be the main goal of any government action (or forbearance of action) regarding global e-commerce. A larger market lower the marginal costs associated with running Internet based businesses, allowing the companies to spread their fixed costs over more customers, which lowers prices. E-commerce will become more efficient and less costly by gaining global economies of scale. Greater market access also gives small entrepreneurial ventures a better chance at success. Low cost access to global markets is especially important for ventures in developing nations, which can use the power of global e-commerce to „leapfrog“ their economic development efforts and sell to an array of wealthier consumers. Second, a global Internet provides consumers with global choice. Automated buyer agents that seek out the best price on a given item are increasing in popularity and promise to bring tremendous efficiency to the pricing of goods and services on the Internet. Expanding from national to international, will encourage competition and reduce prices. Greater market access gives all of these businesses in whatever country they happen to be located, a better chance at success, and gives consumers of all nations a broader choice of goods and services. Finally, as the infrastructure and systems to facilitate global e-commerce develop, access will also be increased in a more important market: the marketplace of ideas.

c) Don’t use regulations for protectionism: With the World Trade Organization

(WTO) or other multilateral trade agreements – should not be allowed to impose rules on e-commerce or the Internet with the intent of reducing online foreign competition.

Practice of protecting domestic producers through the use of seemingly unrelated regulations is an old one, but the growth of global e-commerce presents the opportunity to take it to a new level. The complexities of the technology, the legal issues involved, and the innovative business relationships between companies that conduct and facilitate ecommerce all lend themselves to regulations protecting domestic industries not only from foreign competitors, but from electronic commerce itself. As global e-commerce grows, the WTO will see more disputes about regulations aimed at the Internet and designed to give advantage to domestic industries. Examples include requiring Web sites to be delivered in the country’s native language, requiring transactions to occur in the country’s currency, requiring certain licenses or certifications to operate or use electronic equipment within the country, or requiring the use of nonstandard security protocol. The fear of the local government that a country is being left behind in the new world economy. The initial lead that the United States holds in e-commerce will create political controversies in other countries that are ripe for the use of nationalism as a tool to gain competitive advantage, or at least slow the incursion of foreign e-commerce to allow domestic industries to catch up: an electronic version of the McDonald’s controversy in France. Countries that use such tactics might gain in the short run, but over the long run they will limit their standard of living and hinder global e-commerce.

d) Enforce regulations domestically: Governments cannot impose their laws on foreign companies unless those companies target their activities within the government’s territory or a treaty is in effect.

In the off-line world, activities engaged in by citizens of one country don’t normally affect the

citizens of another country unless those activities are specifically aimed at them (such as sending international mail). An online business based in one country cannot be expected to comply with the laws of other countries—such as privacy regulations or marketing restrictions—merely because their Web site is accessible in other countries. On the other hand, if the Internet seller targets its goods or services to citizens of another country, that seller should be prepared to comply with the laws of that country. Targeting must subject a seller to the targeted country’s jurisdiction in order to prevent companies from relocating offshore to avoid local laws, a situation that would encourage the rise of cyber-havens. A government cannot exercise authority in another country when „reach out“, but it can exercise authority if someone in another country „reaches in“ to consumers in its jurisdiction.

e) Limit restrictions on social, cultural and political content: Government restrictions

on content cannot block trade in violation of World Trade Organization principles and must be enforced only within the restricting government’s territory.

Given the wide variety of objectionable material available on the Internet, it is no surprise that some governments may seek to keep their citizens from accessing some content. These issues go to the very heart of national sovereignty. In the United States, where the constitutional guarantee of free speech has become ingrained in the culture, public sentiment is likely to come down on the side of more freedom, but the United States cannot impose that sentiment on other sovereign nations. Policies for global e-commerce should not be used as bargaining levers for these non-economic disputes over freedom and human rights; if Internet technology is made to bear responsibility for intractable social and political disagreements, it will not succeed. The first is that such controls must apply only to cultural, social, and political content, not trade. Nations that are signatories to the WTO have agreed to a set of principles to facilitate international trade and to a process for resolving disputes. Claims of cultural or political infringement should not be used as a back door method of discrimination against imports. If a country restricts global e-commerce on grounds A government cannot „reach out“ and exercise authority in another country, but it can exercise authority if someone in another country „reaches in“ to consumers in its jurisdiction. The second condition is that all content controls must be implemented domestically. In keeping with Principle above, governments cannot „reach out“ to shut down Internet operators that reside outside of their jurisdiction. Governments must control content through laws and regulations that apply to their own citizens, such as requiring Internet Service Providers to filter certain content or punishing individual users for downloading prohibited content. Of course, exercising control over every citizen’s Internet behavior, while technically possible requires control over the technology and communications infrastructure that only a few governments are likely to exercise.10 Inherent in the spread of Internet technology and the attendant economic benefits is a realization that the more time citizens spend in cyberspace, the less control their governments will have over them. This is why expansion of global e-commerce must be balanced with respect for sovereignty; if a government feels that the trade-off between commerce and social stability is not in its interest, the former is more likely to be rejected.

g) Take advantage of technology: Encourage innovation in the development of technological tools and industry best practices that solve public policy problems.

The Internet lends itself to creative solutions to policy problems precisely because software is a powerful tool to give people the ability to manage their own transactions. Many technological solutions are being developed to facilitate an efficient and trusted environment for both buyers and sellers. This consumer-empowering technology, when fully implemented, may help alleviate the desire for strict government controls on data privacy practices and facilitate easier negotiation between nations with different privacy regimes. Technology promises other solutions as well, in areas from language translation to content control to dispute resolution Policymakers should turn to technology whenever possible and, more importantly, they should think in terms of what technology could do in the future rather than what it can do now. In order to facilitate the growth of global ecommerce,

Policy Recommendations has been discussed and propose:-:

• stay within the current international trade framework;

• make the moratorium on tariffs for electronic transmissions permanent;

• treat digitally delivered products as intangible goods;

• eliminate tariffs on small-value transactions;

• work with third parties seeking to provide solutions;

• promote consumer education efforts; and

• draft and enact global treaties governing criminal activity on the Internet.

Some Opinions on speeding up the development of e-Commerce, in which the Government decided to take measures in six areas:

1. legal environment,

2. supporting industries,

3. enterprise information,

4. technical support,

5. education

6. international co-operation

4.0    Research Methodology/ Data Collection and Analysis

Research methodology

I had been adopting primary and secondary market research data to reinforce the statement of „Globalization of e-commerce in Business“. The approach adopted is based on empirical research and analysis about the ongoing and foreseeable influence of various factors on e-commerce diffusion.

Data Collection and Analysis

Primary research data were collected through a structure questionnaire via online survey tool to answer the research questions. The objective is to determine the people acceptance on buying or selling behavior and pattern if they could accept e-commerce as the way that could contribute to business prior to globalization. The online survey was only sent to different age group level and different gender as we could analyzed through the pattern of acceptance based on various level. Total 72 responses sizes were received with each responses received was screened through for errors, incomplete and view only responses. However, 60 responses were considered complete and effective for data analysis. Respondent can be analyzed from the Summary Report – Mar 26, 2011 (Survey: Globalization of E-Commerce in Business – refer as attached). Total out of the total respondents 60% were males and 40% were females. Among the respondents only 1.7% were under 18 years old, 5% from 18 to 24 years old range, 56.7% informed that their age is belong to 25-34 age group, 35% is from 35-54 years old and finally 1.7% is from age above 55 years old. In term of working status, 3.3% is student, 3.3% is self-employed, 5% has their own business, 85% is working in Professional or Corporate bodies and 3.3% is not working. Regarding usage of internet everyday, 98.3% uses internet everyday and 1.7% is not based on total responses of 58 persons. Based on hours of internet login per-day with total responses of 57 persons, (3.5% login < 1 hour; 36.8% between 1-4 hours; 19.3% login < 6 hours and 40.4% states that they login >12 hours). In term of type of connection, (1.8% uses Cable/LAN; 15.8% is on ADSL/DSL; 14% uses Fiber optic (Unifi); 1.8% is on dial-up and majority with 66.7% respondents uses broadband/mobile/wireless internet).In term of location of login to the internet ( 43.6% login thru home; 50.9% login thru work or office; 3.6% login in hotspot area and 1.8% states they login thru internet café with total responses to this question is 55 persons). Prior to years of login to the internet ( 8.8% only uses internet service since 1-5 years; 36.8% is from 5 – 10 years and 54.4% uses internet more than 10 years with total responses of 57 persons). Total of 96.4% of respondents heard of e-commerce with 3.6% never at all (Total response is 56 persons). In term of visiting to e-commerce website with total response of 56 person: 89.3% states they had before and 10.7% indicates never. Buying or selling thru websites with total responses of 54 persons, 83.3% responded YES and 16.7% had answered NO. Those who responded YES with total response of 48 person, 29.2% say that they had buy or sell one week ago, 25% states one month ago, 35.4% indicates half a year ago and 10.4% states one year ago. Another questions about if they have an option to buy from local store or website (Total response is 55 person : 63.6% responded – Yes; 36.4% states – NO). 50% will still buy thru online/website and 50% thru local store even the price remain the same. Total of 83.6%  says that they trust e-commerce website with only 16.4% indicates no (Total response is 55 persons). In terms of motivation of buy and sell thru e-commerce website, total respondent of 56 persons; 7.1% believe that detail and sufficient product information motivates them; 7.1% sates privacy and security; 48.2% response is because of convenience and save time; 1.8% is due to customer review availability; 5.4% is because of promotion and advertisement; 8.9% is due to product price and quality comparison and 21.4% response is due to variety of global product). The main focus is on the response if e-commerce will be the way to move forward in doing business globally, (Total response of 56 person: 96.4% responded YES and 3.6% say NO).  In term of how they got to know e-commerce (Total response of 56 person: 8.9% is thru email/newsletter; 14.3% from friend; 48.2% is thru search engine; 25% is through social network and 3.6% is from newspaper or magazines. How will they rate browsing experience with total respondent of 56 person: 1.8% rate worst; 1.8% indicate bad; 26.8% stays neutral, 69.6% responded good. Finally, in term of rating experience of buying and selling through website with total response of 51 persons, 2% say worst, 19.6% remain neutral and 78.4% rate good. Prior to all the result of data collected and analyzed, the statistical result shown clearly indicates majority of the people agreed and even had experienced with trust to e-commerce that it is the way which will impact in business prior to globalization. 

Secondary research data is use based on detailed case studies by scholars and experts in 10 countries to explore which factors in the framework appear to be playing a role at this early stage of e-commerce in each country. I compared the results of these case studies across the countries on each of the factors and found that some factors were important influences on adoption across countries and some were not. Identifying the commonalities and differences among the countries, determined which factors were barriers and drivers to ecommerce, and assessed whether these findings pointed to convergence or divergence in the factors shaping diffusion and, ultimately, suggested convergence or divergence in ecommerce outcomes. This article presents as well the results from this cross-case analysis based on secondary research. (FIGURE 2 –E-commerce sales as % GDP with GDP per capita, 2000). Sources cited by IDC (2002), ITU (2001). The 10 countries in the study—Brazil, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Mexico, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States were selected to include developed, newly industrializing, and developing nations, and to represent each major region of the world. Two types of data related to the countries are discussed in the article: (1) qualitative data, or findings, from the in-depth case studies prepared by scholars and experts in each country, and (2) statistical data compiled from the cases and secondary sources (IDC, ITU, UNDP, OECD) that enable cross-country comparison. (FIGURE 2 –E-commerce sales as % GDP with GDP per capita, 2000) illustrates this relationship between e-commerce sales as percent of GDP and 8 J. GIBBS ET AL. GDP per capita, with our 10 countries of focus in boldface type. The United States and Japan stand out as leaders in both e-commerce and GDP per capita. China, Brazil, and Mexico are lagging behind, while the other five countries fall somewhere in the middle. Furthermore, some countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, the United States, and Japan fall „above“ the line, meaning that their e-commerce sales are higher than would be expected based on GDP alone. Other countries, namely, Denmark and France, fall „below“ the line, meaning that their e-commerce sales are lower than would be predicted by the country’s wealth. Wealth alone does not provide a complete explanation of national differences in e-commerce adoption based on the data collected and analyzed. The initial findings from the cross-case analysis suggest that other factors do have an important impact on e-commerce adoption, especially factors of the global environment and national environment and, to a lesser extent, national policy.

5.0    Future research

Looking into the future research, we will need to get the academic experts to develop a common research protocol, conduct country and international analyses, and share findings at annual meetings, forum, comparison of research data and how Globalization of e-commerce will have an effect to either the growth or decline in business. Research protocol was developed to achieve multiple objectives on our findings. Initial objective was to develop a team culture to facilitate knowledge development and sharing of ideas. Second, a common survey instrument had need to be developed that to diverse the economies impact to Asia, Americas and Europe.Moreover, it had to be translated into multiple languages, independently checked and piloted in each country. Third, we had to collect secondary data that was comparable across countries with which to better understand their socio-economic environments and e-commerce diffusion over time, as a way of providing perspective for our cross-sectional survey. Finally, to complement both the Global E-Commerce survey, the secondary research data  is needed as to obtain a granular understanding of the Internet and e-commerce within each country. Individual country case studies is needed for each country, including specific industries and/or firms to see how EC evolved in business globally. These case studies usually were written by local academics experts.Development of several partnerships to carry out this work is necessary. First was our partnership with the academic experts in each country who signed on for the four-year effort. Second was a partnership with the International Data Corporation (IDC) of Framingham, MA. This International bodies will govern to develop the survey questionnaire, secure translations into multiple languages, check the questionnaire translations with their in-country staff, oversee conduct of the survey by the international survey firm, market probe and review the survey results. IDC should bee chosen for future research because it has experience working in many countries, conducts its own surveys in several countries, and has experts in e-commerce in each of the countries in this study. Partnership with Empirica, GMBH in Germany is also needed from the aspect of Europe nation for data and analysis related to projects sponsored by the European Commission’s Information Society Technologies (IST) Directorate General. This European nation bodies will help to provided additional data useful for special firm-level, cross country analyses that complemented the basic Globalization of Ecommerce analyses that covers a wider aspect mainly the impact to business.

 6.0    Conclusions

In conclusion to this research that I had embarked, this paper has found useful way of organizing the key factors influencing e-commerce diffusion which will need to be by more quantitative analyses in the future, primary and secondary data is needed to conclude of how e-commerce could impact the business growth globally. There is specific factors shaping the e-commerce that vary considerably. For Global e-commerce especially (business-to-business) model competitive forces are the greatest driver of adoption. Global competition and participation in global production networks create strong pressure to adopt e-commerce. Global competitive pressure is driving greater convergence in business practices through global integration of production networks and supply chains. Countries which are more open to such forces whether through international trade, trade liberalization, or foreign investment will more likely move toward higher e-commerce diffusion. As for Business-to-Commerce) model diffusion seems to be less affected by global forces and more affected by variables specific to the national and local environment, such as consumer preferences, retail structure, and local language and cultural factors. Findings from this research states that consumer preference for valuable content and concerns for security and privacy are the most significant factors. Prior to the converging around the world, country preferences for local content, culture and language  really differ significantly thus shaping e-commerce adoption across globally. This paper examines that the preliminary explanation for this difference is that B2B is driven by MNCs (Multi National companies) that „push“ e-commerce to their global suppliers, customers, and their own subsidiaries. This will create the pressures on local companies to adopt e-commerce to stay competitive. Business practices become more standardized across borders in practice. Business education and imitation of best practices reinforce this convergence; as new innovation occurs in theory or practice in order to be competitive. In term of all consumers who really desire on convenience and enjoy low prices, consumer preferences and values, national culture, and distribution systems differ markedly across countries and define differences in local consumer markets. This distinction between B2B and B2C e-commerce as a global phenomenon has important implications. Theoretically, it gives support to the transformational perspective, which sees globalization as involving elements of both convergence and divergence. A country’s position in the global economy is largely dependent on location, labor cost, or other endowments, so that the impacts of B2B e-commerce may be limited Although Internet-based e-commerce is still in its infancy stage, this preliminary research indicates that its diffusion is an uneven process across countries and industries: certain countries and industries are driving the process while others lag behind. Moreover, despite the presence of global forces shaping diffusion, local differences in the factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are evident between countries, suggesting that the diffusion process is indeed shaped by national environments and policy rather than taking a universal trajectory. These findings imply that though Globalization of e-commerce in business is the way to move forward in future but it is not the factors of growth in economy or business performance of the  country. It has never been the same approach to adopt the diffusion of e-commerce across all countries in the world. There is so many elements and factors need to be taken into consideration. Therefore, more study is needed across all countries continuously over a period of 5 years to observe how e-commerce could shape the country economy and how it impact business performance in different industries of the country. This research also imply that future studies should focus on modeling the survey quantitatively to cross-reference check on empirical research done as to compare their relationship across all countries in the world.

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