Why Anti-Spyware Software is Important


Spyware programs have been designed to affect PCs across the world. A recent review states that almost nine out of every ten computers are affected with spyware. This is because most home users are unsuspecting and also freely use the internet for all purposes. Anti spyware software comes in various packages and formats, you can get them on trail basis and if you like the software than you can buy it without having a second thought. Free spyware removal programs are easily available on the internet for download free of cost.

Spyware can very easily get into your computer without your knowledge. They silently follow you each and every activity on the internet and steal your private data, which may include your e-mails ids, credit card or bank account numbers and passwords. They are capable of doing all the criminal activities on the internet. Some spyware programs make advertisements luring the user to click on it, and once user click on that attractive program, they instantly get in your pc without your knowledge.Though there are free options that will help you to feel more secure (it’s definitely more secure than having nothing), paid options are much better. All in all, you will be happier and more protected with a paid program that offers frequent updates, support and service, and gets the job done more efficiently. Always do your research before buying an anti-spyware software; make sure other customers have great things to say about it.

Getting Spyware on your PC is inevitable. Your PC is prone to spyware attack and can be infected in many ways. It may be just from opening a wrong email or loading a wrong website or downloading music/movies/anything from a wrong source. Whenever you download a program or file or click on a pop-up ad, there is always a danger of downloading spyware and adware into your system. Whatever may be the reason thousands of the PC’s are prone to spyware each and every day.

Paid anti-spyware is much better in the long-run because it should be constantly updated with new algorithms and detection tools. You pay for the service and receive updates periodically that change with the new threats present on the internet. You also get better support services with paid software. If you need help with a technical issue, paid software usually comes with help 24/7 to get you through the issue and back up and running. It has more support because it’s trying to turn a profit; it needs to be the best to have people continue to subscribe. Check out the customer service of the paid software you’re interested in. If it wants to keep it’s members, it will probably have excellent service. In contrast, many free programs come without technical support or service at all.

The severity of the spyware and adware attack is very huge. There are around 80,000 spyware and adware programs on the web and all of them can be a serious threat to your PC. These programs install themselves and slow down the speed of your PC by taking up vast amount of hard disk space and it is impossible to remove them manually without the aid of anti spyware or anti adware software.

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Source by Linda Holstrom

Id Card Security – Types of Blank Id Cards


There are a myriad of possible combinations of card types, but in the real world you are likely to come across the following ID cards:

Standard plastic card
Also known as: PVC card
Description: A simple plastic card, with no added features like magnetic stripes or chips.
Applications: ID only with no access control or payment.

Magnetic stripe card
Also known as: Mag stripe card, HiCo card.
Description: A plastic card with a magnetic stripe on the back.
Applications: Magnetic stripe is used for access control or for payment.

Contact chip card
Also known as: Smart card, Chip card.
Description: A plastic card with a visible chip on the front of the card. Contact is required between the chip and the terminal for the chip to operate.
Applications: Chip is used for access control or for payment. Their speed and relative low cost has made them the choice for credit cards and ATM cards.

Contactless card
Also known as: Proximity card, Prox card.
Description: A plastic card with a chip embedded inside the card, which is attached to an antenna, so that the chip can operate by radio-frequency, meaning no physical contact is required. Most of these cards are known as proximity cards, as they only work at short range – between a few inches to a few feet.
Applications: Chip is used for access control or for payment. For access control, contactless cards are better than contact chip cards for outdoor or high-throughput uses like parking and turnstiles.

Combination cards
Also known as: Combi cards.
Description: Cards that combine contact and contactless technologies.  There are two types of these – 1. Those with one chip that has both contact pads and an antenna. 2. Those with two chips – one a contact chip, the other a contactless chip with antenna.
Applications: These cards are the most expensive, and are often used for applications like mass transit or government cards.

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Source by Valerie Douard

Become a Millionaire Overnight Without Doing Anything?


Are you the sort of person who could be attracted by a headline such as the one above? Do you really believe that it is possible to make that kind of money without any effort on your part? Of course you don’t because you are a sensible rational adult who know that in this life you get nothing for nothing.

So if you and I cannot be fooled by these sort of smoke and mirrors claims who are the millions of people who respond to headlines and sales letters with almost as outlandish claims every day? Guess what, it is people just like you and me.

Be honest have you never responded to some advertisement or sales letter that seems just too good to be true. I suspect like me you probably have and within a short time you have realised that what may have appeared a great idea on paper is simply is a load of old rubbish.

So what is it in all our natures that make us want to believe that there is some hidden secret of creating wealth from nothing? I suppose that it is the same reaction as when we buy a lottery ticket and just for a few minutes we imagine what life would be like should we win.

I think possibly it is the optimists that get suckered into these wild schemes because somewhere in the back of their brains they know that the plan almost certainly will not work, BUT.. it just might. Most people use the glass half full half empty image to define optimists and pessimists but I have another analogy. An optimist is some who when buys a lottery ticket EXPECTS to win, a pessimist KNOWS he is not going to win.

Quite frankly there has never been a better time for anyone to build themselves considerable wealth. It is possible to start with practically nothing and in a relatively short time build considerable wealth. A ex work colleagues have mine has a son you was going to go to further education and wanted to get some cash to pay for his time at university. He came up with a simple idea, got some press coverage and made over $1 million in a very short time. He was the guy who got the idea of selling 1 million pixels on his web site for $1 a time; you may have read about him.

The formula for how to become wealthy can be broken down into plan, effort result. You need a plan or idea, add dedication, effort and determination and this will equal wealth. If you take a plan or idea and add nothing that will always equal nothing.

Someone once told me that there is a name for having a goal but taking no action, it is called day dreaming.

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Source by D J Bromley

The Nexus One Phone vs. Motorola Droid


Which is the better phone?

The Nexus One or         Motorola Droid

Just this morning, Google held a live press conference from their corporate headquarters in Mountain View, California, and spilled the beans on their new smart phone, the Nexus Oneincluding where it will be available for purchase and  how much you will have to pay to get one.

Most significantly, the network you will soon be anathemising with your new Google phone will be T-Mobile’s. The phone will be available for $179 with a contract (and free overnight shipping anywhere in the US), or $530 unlocked and contract-free.

>>>Get A Free Motorola Droid<<<

And these are the technical particulars you’ll get for that kind of coin:

– 3.7-inch, 480 x 800 AMOLED display

– 1GHz Snapdragon processor

– 5 megapixel camera with LED flash

– 3.5mm headphone jack

The phone also comes preloaded with a 4GB microSD card, but will accept up to 32GB. Charging and connectivity will be handled through a mini-USB port, and the Nexus One also sports an LED-backlit trackball for purposes currently unknown.

Will this be the new  iPhone killer? It’s still early days, but what we are hearing so far are certainly very positive reviews., and the inclusion of expandable and interchangeable storage, a great  camera with a flash, and a 1GHz chip will defianetly be give the iPhone makers plenty to ponder over.

It seems like just yesterday the Motorolad Droid just hit the market. And here is the best part, for a very limited time, you will still be able to receive the Droid for free.

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Source by Stephen

Improving Self-esteem


Hello and welcome to – How To Improve Your Self-Esteem Fast! I have written about what I feel self esteem is all about and how I improved mine. I am not a doctor nor am I an expert, but I have read a lot of self help books to improve my own self-esteem, and I believe that high self esteem is a huge factor in leading a happy life.

So What Is Self-Esteem?

Your self-esteem is not only how you feel about yourself in the present, it is how you asses yourself fundamentally through out the long term. If you have low self esteem, daily events can have a major influence on how you feel. For example, a kind gesture from a friend or a good day at work can make you feel great for a few days. And alternately a not so nice day can make you feel extremely low. And lets face it most days are uneventful and dull, so when you have low self esteem staying high can be a struggle! A good healthy self-esteem is based on accepting yourself for who you are – know who you are, and be content, like yourself!

Your Self-esteem Has Been…

Built and developed throughout out your entire life to this point in time now! And yes you guessed it, child hood had a huge impact on your self-esteem. All the pleasant, good, bad and ugly stuff that happened while growing up had an influence on how you rate yourself today. Healthy self-esteem will have been built from praise, respect and stable influences while growing up. People who were yelled at, regularly criticized, abused, given no positive attention, bullied etc, will have found it difficult to develop a healthy self-esteem. These are extreme examples, and subtle negative/positive experiences have a big impact also. Things happening that you don’t necessarily remember, or didn’t think much of can have been big influences also.

Argue With Your „Inner Voice“ To Help Improve Self-Esteem

We all have an inner voice constantly chatting away inside our heads. It passes comment on everything we did/do/want to do. And for those with healthy self-esteem it reassures and compliments. For us with poor self-esteem the inner voice criticizes, puts us down and stands in our way! When you do something, like for example – compete in sport or go for a job interview, and some one praises you the inner voice will say something like „he was lying, you were terrible, don’t bother next time“. What you must do is contradict the inner voice, and snap back with something like – „He praised me because I did well, I might not have been perfect but win lose or draw I did my best and I’m proud of myself!“

Arguing with your inner voice will go along way towards improving your self-esteem, start now! Remember this, YOU are the boss, YOU are in control, don’t let the critic within bring you down!

Using Positive Affirmations To Improve Self-Esteem

A positive affirmation is a positive statement about yourself. Use them in a meditation technique, as well as through each day by saying them to yourself in your mind. Ideally you want to relax at least once a day and just quietly repeat some positive statements to yourself – playing some relaxing music at the same time is real good help!

Examples of positive affirmations to improve self-esteem:

Who You Are –

I am beautiful

I am strong

I am special

Who you will be -<

I can be a winner

I can be strong

I can heal

I can lose weight

I will do –

I will like myself

I will smile more

I will control my temper

By repeating these things to yourself on a constant basis you have no choice but to believe them deep down! You will become these things, and that’s improving self-esteem.

Self-Nurturing To Improve Self-Esteem

Self-nurturing is critical to improving self-esteem. Start by looking after yourself physically, by eating well, staying/getting into shape and having all the sleep you need – not too much and not too little.

Self-nurturing to improve self-esteem is making yourself feel worthwhile. Treat yourself regularly by doing fun and enjoyable things – especially when you’ve achieved something meaningful. You must reward yourself for accomplishments! Think of the things you like about yourself, and remind yourself constantly about them. Don’t dwell or punish yourself for failing – reward yourself for trying in the first place. Remember to concentrate on the good and learn to forgive what you perceive to be the bad. Times when you don’t feel good or positive are crucial, you must find things about yourself that are good no matter how small they might be! Improving self-esteem will come by doing these things. Acquiring help from loved ones can be a big help for improving self-esteem. Ask friends and family to tell you what they like about you. Ask them to be your release valve when you feel low or frustrated – by just listening when your letting off steam, this can be a huge help in improving self-esteem.

Your Environment Is Vital To Improving Self-esteem And Maintaining It

Being surrounded by warm, loving people is a huge factor in self-esteem. Now I know this isn’t possible for a lot, not everyone has a caring friend and family network. However you must ensure that those you do have in your life accept you, and of course you must accept them for who they are. A feeling of acceptance will help you to realize that differences between people are okay. Relationships with others will be easier to build by understanding this. Bond with those you see and interact with every day, do this by simply talking, touching while talking, showing respect, listening, being supportive, and being honest. Liking those around you and knowing that they feel the same about you is a huge boost to ones self-esteem!

Criticism

Don’t be sorry for who you are! If and when you’re criticised, for what ever reason be sure to „judge“ what is said to you before responding. Don’t automatically apologise! If the criticism is fair then take it on board and respond by agreeing with the criticiser. If unfair then stand up to it, like with your inner voice. A well composed and self-possessed person will listen to criticism without interrupting and then respond. Be sure to give criticism at appropriate times, people with poor self-esteem often find it harder to give than to take. Don’t let annoyances go until you „boil over“, it’s usually better to nip things in the bud. Be tactful and try not to hurt another persons‘ self-esteem. Use the word „I“ not „you“, example – I have trouble when that happens.

David Stuart
www.improvingselfesteemfast.com

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Source by David Stuart

Day Trading for Beginners – How to Become a Day Trader Cheaply


When it comes to day trading for beginners, a little caution and education go a long way. When most people start out making trades online they usually have taken a considerable amount of time scratching together a little capital to invest in the market. Many times people have made significant sacrifices in order to raise money to invest. Then they have this misfortune of going straight into the market and losing a large chunk of their initial stake with their first few trades. This does not have to be the case: day trading for beginners can be done on the cheap.

Getting Up the Learning Curve

In the intro we talked about the investor working hard and saving money to invest. A prudent person would spend a little time and money familiarizing themselves with the various investments available and try to make the best choices possible. Many people do try to do this themselves and feel confident when they click the mouse to make that first trade. These same traders quickly find out that they were horribly wrong. What part of the learning curve did they miss?

The truth is that while many novice investors have read a few books or articles on the stock market, more often than not the equities / stock market is the last place the beginner should put their money. This is especially true when talking about day trading for beginners. The stock market is the realm of highly capitalized, extremely sophisticated investors and institutions. Is that really the place for a small stake player to be learning the ropes? The truth is that stocks are where the most expensive lessons are taught. The first lesson in any day trading for beginners course ought to be that there are many other places to trade and make money, and nearly all of them offer better potential outcomes than equities.

How to Get More Bang for Your Investment (and Education) Buck

Face it, day trading for beginners is a learning experience first. Does that mean a novice should be reading dozens of books on the topic before opening an account and placing trades? Not necessarily but a little research on the internet will expose the beginner to numerous alternative investments which are profitable at lower capital commitment levels – and this is key for novice traders. Getting a greater hands on education in short-term investing means getting as many small trades as possible in order to learn as much as possible without losing too much capital.

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Source by Steve B Wise

A Guide To Microsoft Dynamics NAV


Microsoft Dynamics NAV is an ERP (or „enterprise resource planning“) system that is easy to use, can be integrated into any business or organization, and uses hi-tech features to help you efficiently run your business. No matter what industry you are in, you can use Microsoft Dynamics NAV to bring advanced functionality and efficiency to your organization and employees. All of the functions of the office are combined into a single, effective program that looks and works not unlike Microsoft Windows and Office. From start to finish, it is a snap to get it set up and running. Every function your business needs is right here, including sales, marketing, supply chain management, human resources, services management, financial, manufacturing, project management, and the like. Your employees have the tools they need to make your company succeed. This program allows for real-time data on a variety of important business activities. It has tools for both analysis and reporting, online analytical tools, web-based data delivery and is able to generate graphical displays. This means no more working on hunches and guesses, your employees will be able to make confident decisions more quickly based on precise data analysis that will move your business forward at a fever pitch. Microsoft Dynamics NAV is an open program that will allow Microsoft to continually tweak and update the core to meet the needs of businesses. With its compact source code system maintenance is both easy and efficient, and there is little trouble connecting Dynamics NAV to other systems. Advanced security options also ensure that you can control which levels of employees can access which functions. Microsoft Dynamics NAV is also easily customized to your needs. For example, it features a Role Tailored User Experience that brings the features you use most to the forefront while hiding 90% of the features that do not see regular use. This keeps the system simple and uncluttered, increasing productivity. It also allows you to optimize your tasks, and leaves your window open for upcoming task overviews. There are already one million people using Microsoft Dynamics NAV, and that number is growing. This is a highly customizable, flexible and easily integrate program that can help your business grow faster than you imagined. You will not have to interrupt IT operations for days to adopt this system and it also will not stretch (or break) your IT budget. You can easily integrate this system in the hardware you already use, and your employees can easily learn it.

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Source by Mark Walters

Global Warming


„With public sentiment nothing can fail; without it nothing can succeed. Consequently, he who molds public sentiment goes deeper than he who enacts statutes than he who enacts or pronounces decisions.“ Abraham Lincoln.

People exist always only in combination with nature, they can not be separated from it by any means and thus any kind of changes either positive or negative are always reflected in our lives. Long time ago one of the main problems on the planet became the global climate change. The Artic ice starts to melt and disappear, Latin America and South America suffer from lethal storms and floods. Europeans have to face melting glaciers, forest fires and heat waves. The tree rings and ancient coral in ice cores show that the world has not been as warm before as it is now. The warmest years were all starting since 1998. Most of these changes are influenced by human activities, as people burn the nature’s stores of coal, oil and natural gas. As a result billions of tones of carbon dioxide come into the air annually. Some scientists even suppose that these changes were caused by the dawn of agriculture. The well known phenomenon connected with global warming is greenhouse effect. CO2 is a greenhouse gas that makes the obstacle for the Sun radiation in the troposphere, the lower atmosphere. Some researches also show that cosmic rays are also connected with this effect. As soon as the atmospheric CO2 rises the global temperatures are luckily to rise by around 2C to 5 C. As a result the ice starts to melt, changes in clouds and vegetation occur and so on. When the glaciers melt, they will certainly cause some rivers to overflow, while others will be emptied. The situations with water resources might cause conflicts in different regions. All this will of course influence the natural ecosystems, as not all species can move quickly enough to put up with the global warming, for example coral reefs. The melting ices will influence not only the level of rivers‘ water, but also the level of the oceans is disturbed. And if the level of the ocean rises 6 meters higher, that would be enough to flood the lands of billions of people.

Forests and oceans on our planet were able to absorb about half of the CO2 people produced, but since 2001 the amount of CO2 is twice bigger, which really limits the resources of the nature.

Methane is the second most important gas for greenhouse effect. The effect of methane is even 20 times greater than carbon dioxide, but there is less methane in the atmosphere. Methane influences 25% of global warming. Methane is produced by cows and termites. Thus agriculture and rice growing can produce methane. Besides coal mining and oil wells also produce methane. The level of methane in the atmosphere is constantly increasing – this is also an alarming fact for the Earth climate.

Public Health organizations are also worried about global warming, as researches state that the global warming is luckily to increase human mortality, when the cases of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and other  parasites increase. But the American Council on Science and Health announced the conclusions of its study which show that such diseases could become serious problems for people disregarding global warming and that these diseases can be prevented not only by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of these conclusions was certainly to make the diseases for the government not associated with global warming. The findings of the American Council on Science and Health were as follows:

– As the World Health Organization states that there are more than 500 million cases of malaria each year, malaria can not be caused only by warming of the climate, the increasing of the temperature can increase the incidents of malaria only by 10-16%.
– The ACSH studies were also stating that wealth can bring health and stimulate long living, whereas poverty is one of the reasons for hard diseases and short life spans. And public health would be put at risk when great economic costs could go on control of greenhouse gas emissions, as it could lead to poverty.
– Yellow fever, malaria and other tropical diseases could be prevented with fewer costs than those needed to restrict greenhouse gas emissions, for example: use of vaccinations, judicious use of pesticides and biological control methods, usage of mosquito and fly screens and public education.
– Spending money for reducing greenhouse gas emissions means that this money can not be used for better methods of preventing the above mentioned diseases, as better nutrition and sanitation.
This was one of the bright examples how the problem of global warming is not treated in a proper way in order to solve the financial and other problems of the high politic leaders, who care really not much for the future of the whole planet.

But no matter what is said, global warming still stays a great problem of the whole mankind. Certainly it is not possible to stop all human activities that disturb the atmosphere as they are connected with producing food and making people warm. But we should not forget that some predictions about global warming are close to tragic. People are controlling the whole Earth as there are almost no places, which never felt the hand of a human. And thus the whole responsibility is on people. There are certain measures to at least avoid the worst case, the disaster on the planet. People can reduce of greenhouse gas emissions with the help of energy conservation, like turning the computers and other technical devices off, when they do not use them, use compact fluorescent lights, unplug the chargers of cell phones and digital cameras and so on.

The issues of global warming and fossil fuel usage are certainly closely connected. The use of oil and natural resources will decline in a decade. But this would not reduce the carbon dioxide emissions automatically, the replacements with coal, heavy oil and tar sand contain even more carbon, if to make them produce the same amount of energy they will produce twice more carbon. But the fact is that all transport, roads and airports for this transport are useless without oil. To create a new transport system is a task for the whole society, not for an individual, besides it would need money, time, natural resources and a lot of brain power. So the previous arguments concerning a lot of money spent on the stopping or at least slowing the global warming can be put aside against these ones.

The projections made for the future state that Earth will be an ice planet without greenhouse effect, the Earth will get warmer, by the 2100 the temperature will be 1.5 C – 4.5 C warmer, the increase will be less in the southern hemisphere and greater in the northern hemisphere. The global temperature is connected with carbon dioxide level and methane level, which at the moment exceed greatly the past levels.

It is necessary to mention some facts concerning the future in order to understand why the global warming can be considered a disaster for the whole planet. Certainly it is not possible to know the future climate on Earth precisely, but some data are certain: every century brings the increase of the temperature of 1-2C. It is enough for Greenland and Antarctica to start melting, thus some part of northern areas could become a farmland and Sahara might become bigger. Storms can be stronger. Some countries like Bangladesh and Netherlands are luckily to vanish because of the ocean level rise up to 5 meters.

The term „climate forcings“ is often used though it is hard to give its precise definition. To define it simply – this is an event that influences global climate. At this point it is necessary to mention that the weather and climate are different things, the weather is described with the help of variations of dryness or wetness, cold and heat. They do not play a great role for the whole picture on the Earth, but climate can be influenced by forcings, like for example a volcanic eruption can cool the climate on the whole Earth. Such forcing is called a short term forcing. An example of long term forcing may be continental drift which within millions of years changes the path of ocean currents. To anthropogenic forcings belong fossil fuel burning and agriculture. Not all forcings of humans result in global warming, sulfur dioxide from coal burning produces aerosols and they result in cooling.

These were the main negative influences on the climate that cause the global warming. They are rather serious and need urgent steps taken by people in order to avoid the catastrophes in the world of nature, to which we by the way also belong.

So the climate of the Earth should be an international concern and not only of scientists and ordinary people, but also of those who hold power in their hand and are able to make the politics work not only for money, but also for the future of the whole mankind. Unfortunately, these are mostly beautiful words and promises when elections are in the future as soon as they are over the real situation changes. Not a single national leader has come out publicly and said that the recent spate of hurricanes was the result of global warming, this is a part of conventional wisdom of environmentalists that they should not frighten the public, but should focus their interest on technical solutions, like for example hybrid cars and so on.

Global warming is such a problem that it is necessary to deal with all its aspects, which includes the politics. When politicians formulate their policy they need inputs from many disciplines and from science as well. But unfortunately global warming has become an absolutely political issue and politicians do their best to influence even science.

In 1992 at the Earth Summit the decision to prevent such dangerous climate change was taken. The first step was the 1997 Kyoto protocol, which is supposed to come into force in 2005.

One of the reports of the U.N. Panel on Climate Changes warns that the U.S. and other wealthy countries should immediately cut their oil and gas consumption and agree to get at least a quarter of their electrical energy from renewable resources – solar and wind power; and that they should double their research spending on low-carbon energy by 2010.In 1997 the U.S. Senate voted 95-0 to make Clinton Administration not to send the Kyoto treaty to Capitol Hill for ratification. In his first term president Bush rejected Kyoto. Russia ratified it, but most believe that Putin was made to do that as British Prime Minister and other European Union officials threatened not to let him become a member of World Trade Organization, which could cost Russia billions of dollars each year. But the chief economic adviser of Putin – Andrei Illarionov shows his doubts as for the upholding commit to Kyoto, he says: „There is no evidence confirming a positive linking between the level of carbon dioxide and temperature change. The U.N. Panel’s so called scientific data are considerably distorted and in many cases falsified“ (Can We Defuse the Global Warming Time Bomb?, by James Hansen, 2003, pp.2-15). One of the main ideas of Ilarionov and others is to break the advanced economies of the U.S., Europe and Japan, by persuading the multi-national companies to move plants and jobs to developing countries in order not to comply with emissions restrictions. But the president of the American Policy Center in Washington – Tom DeWeese doesn’t agree that it makes sense, he states as the main concern and the prime target is the wealth of the United States it would not be wise to place factories in Third World countries, as the same amount of emissions would come out from jungles of South America instead of Chicago and in this case we are not talking about the protection of the environment any more. He is right in a way.

The main goal of the meeting in Kyoto was signing the amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Rio Treaty) in order to require the signatory nations to take the necessary steps to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, as these gases cause an alarm situation with global temperatures. The costs of signing it for the U.S. could be really high, as the county could be made to reduce between 10 and 20 % of greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2020, that would cause reduction of gross domestic products by $260 billion annually, it is equal to $2.700 per household. Certainly it was hard to prove that such costs are justified. Besides as millions of American people could be put at risk, several important questions appeared. The first one was about the possible merits or drawbacks of global warming. The World Bank researches prove that about one-third of the whole population suffers from water shortages. By 2025 they say – around 40 % of the whole population could be living in countries without sufficient water supplies. The crops will also suffer from lack of water. Global warming leads to more condensation and more evaporation, thus producing more rains. So it could be in a way an answer to the problem about lack of water. The second positive point about global warming is possibility of agriculture in North America and Europe, the southern regions of Greenland were not covered with ice when between 10th and 12th centuries the temperature was 0.5 degrees warmer than today, and could be also cultivated. The evidence of this was found when: „scientists from the National Science Foundation sponsored Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 extracted in an ice core from Greenland’s ice sheet that spanned more than 100.000 years of climate history. Samplings from the core suggest that a Little Ice Age began between 1400 and 1420, blanketing the Vikings‘ farms in ice and forcing them to abandon their farms in search of more hospitable climates“.( Michael Crichton’s State of Fear: Climate Change in the Cineplex, by Amy Ridenour pp.1-5). Thus global warming could mean more agricultural productivity and more water resources.

The idea that great storms are connected with global warming is sometimes called a myth. Those who say so find little evidence to support this fact and also to support a conclusion that there is a connection between global warming and increasing number of such pests and mosquitoes that bring malaria, yellow fever and other diseases.  The researches of George C. Marshal institute show that most severe storms are more associated with warm and cold weather, for example in the North Sea the storms occurred between 15th and 16th centuries after the onset of Little Ice Age. The United Health Organization writes that with the grow of international traveling and great number of migrations and refugees people have the chance to communicate more, and thus the diseases are spread more quickly, not just from one person to another, but also from one continent to another.

Another important question concerns the global warming itself. Depending on the time period we are discussing the planet is either warming or not. Our planet has experienced several periods of warming and cooling. In his article in 1994 Richard Kerr offered his point of view about this issue: „In order for a climate model to have credibility, it must first be able to reliably „predict“ current climate. … Some „tune“ their models by adjusting the strength of solar radiation; others by adjusting the transfer of energy between the ocean and the atmosphere to get just the desired results. The result is climate models that are largely worthless“. (When Science Meets Politics on Global Warming, by Roy W. Spencer, 1998 pp.1-4).

Another question concerns economical results of reducing of greenhouse gas emissions. The plan as to reduce them to their 1990 level by 2000 and with further reductions for 2010 and 2020. This would make the taxes for carbon dioxide raise up to $100 $200 pro metric ton. Then by 2010 this could cause about 500.000 – one million job loses in U.S. The situation in Australia would be even worse, as they have a strong mining sector. The economies of developing countries would also be sensitive to these reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. The emissions in Brazil grew by 20%, in India – by 28%, in Indonesia – by 40% between 1990 and 1995.Thus developing nations and oil exporters have fears concerning their economic futures. That is why developing nations were exempted from reduction mandate under the Berlin mandate.

So the main point of political leaders is that the high costs for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are not worth the climate benefits they could bring. There is a point of view that even if such steps are necessary for improving our climate, we should not hurry and should at first improve our knowledge about causes and consequences of global warming, we should develop technology that could reduce the greenhouse emissions per unit of output, increase the reflectivity of atmosphere. The supporters of this position state that there are a lot of other important economical, scientific and political issues that need to be solved and there is no reason to rush to conclusions about global warming, as scientists themselves are a kind of swept up in the moment. Even after the Kyoto was coming into force constant debates between climate skeptics and global warming „supporters“ continued. For example when Kevin Trenberth, being a head of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested that there was a connection between climate changes and wave of hurricanes,  Christopher Landsea, hurricane expert at America’s national Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration wrote in his public letter that: „because of Dr. Trenberth’s pronouncements. The IPCC process has been subverted and compromised, its neutrality lost“ (When Science Meets Politics on Global Warming, by Roy W. Spencer, 1998 pp.1-4).

The concepts of „nature“ and „environment“ were reconstructed. Actually the human-made phenomenon – global warming- is somehow considered environmental. Some people believe that this framing is political, not just conceptual problem. When the term environment is used it means something that is „out there“ and needs fixing, but in reality the problem can not be considered external, as it is within people and not out. And it was and will be the humans‘ problem.

Overall, the warming of the Earth has become a serious problem concerning, scientists, citizens and of course policy-makers. It is certainly hard to give one-sided characteristics to all effects, results and reasons of the global warming described above, there are certainly possibilities that not all recent researches and conclusions of scientists are true to life 100%, and the statement that in several decades we will know much more about climate changing and global warming has also some rational points. But on the other hand it is hard to deny the fact that the human beings do influence the climate and the nature greatly. These issues touch every single person on the planet and the whole mankind. They should bother the policy making people as well. They have to care for the wealth of the country but to simply deny all the negative facts about global warming is hardly the best way out. But unfortunately it usually happens so that the politics are more interested in real facts concerning finance and industrial developments than in vague future of the whole planet. As the whole industrial process and thus the economy of almost any country depends on its usage of natural resources, the climate seems a low „price“ for spoiling them. When they start to think about problems caused by climate change, they think first of all about refugees, loss of job places, food shortages because of bad development of agriculture and so on.

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Source by John Nilson

Benefits and Challenges of Multinational Companies (MNCs)


Multinational companies (MNCs) are not without benefits, which may be to the government, the economy, and the people or even to itself. Cole (1996) stated that the size of multinational organization is enormous; many of them have total sales well in excess of the GND of many of the world’s nations. Cole also stated that World Bank statistics of comparison between multinational companies and national GNPs shows, for example, that large oil firms such as Exxon and Shell are large in economic terms that nations such as South Africa, Australia and Argentina are substantially greater than nations such as Greece, Bulgaria and Egypt.

Other large multinational companies include General Motors, British Petroleum, Ford and International Business Machine (IBM). Some of the benefits of multinational companies are:

1. There is usually huge capital investment in major economic activities

2. The country enjoys varieties of products, services and facilities, brought to their door steps

3. There is creation of more jobs for the populace

4. The nation’s pool of skills are best utilized and put to use effectively and efficiently

5. There is advancement in technology as these companies bring in state-of-the-art-technology for their businesses

6. The demand for training and retraining and advancement in the people’s education becomes absolutely necessary. This will in turn help strengthen the economy of the nation

7. The living standard of the people is boosted

8. Friendliness between and among nations in trade i.e. it strengthen international relation

9. The balance of payments of nations in trade are improved on

In the words of Cole (1996), he stated that the sheer size (and wealth) of multinationals means that they can have a significant effect on host country. To Cole, most of the effects are beneficial and include some of the above or all. The Electronic Library of Scientific Literature (1996) explained the benefits of MNCs under a theory known as ‚The Theory of Externalities‘. The theory considers the benefits of MNCs from the point of view of those who maintain the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as part of the engine necessary for growth. In the contribution of Davies (1989), he gave some theories on the benefits/advantages of multinational. Davies (1989:260) tagged this ‚Economic Theory‘ and the multinational where he took a comprehensive and critical look at the benefits of MNCs.

More benefits came along with these people’s theories and some are:

1. There is significant injection into the local economy in respect to investment

2. Best utilization of the country’s natural resources

3. They help in strengthening domestic competition

4. They are good source of technological expertise

5. Expansion of market in the host country

PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES FACING MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

There is no company without problems it is facing. Whether an organization is big or small, there will certainly be some sort of problems or negative factor/influence militating against its survival or continuity. Weihrich and Koontz (1994) states that the operation of multinational companies needs to be weighed against the environmental challenges and most of the challenges being faced by multinational companies are:

1. There is usually acute shortage of manpower – people with lack of managerial and technical skills

2. The challenge of unfriendly business environment

3. There is usually the problem of conflicting interest among the three parties – the government, the MNC and the general public

4. There may be huge cost of labour in the host country, at least to get the expatriate managers from home country or somewhere else

Conclusively, the above mentioned authors have given all round and comprehensive note on the benefits of MNCs to the host country where they operate and as well highlighted the derivable benefits to the MNCs themselves from the host country. Likewise, in spite of the challenges and the problems being faced by these MNCs, they still continue to survival and waxing stronger.

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Source by Oluwanisola Seun

I/O Device Error Problem and the Simple Ways to Fix It


The I/O Device Error appears when the computer is not responding effectively while reading or copying the data or installing software from CD to DVD drive. In more simple terms it occurs when your computer is not able to complete an input/output operation on the drive which you are accessing for transferring of the data or anything which you’re CD cannot use or recognize at all. But dealing with this error problem is not an insurmountable task as the following simple steps would ensure the rectification of the problem ultimately.

Check for a Defective Disc – First check for any defective disc in your PC, as the message is prompted if the CD disc in use is covered with dust particles which in turn pass it on to your CD drive and also check for any fingerprints on the drive, then clean the sides by wiping from inner parts to outer edges, insert the disc and try again.

Check for the Defective Drive in your PC, which you can make out when it is not able to read the disc inserted, but the CD is able to run on drives of other systems; and this requires cleaning up or repair of the drive.

Check for Incorrect Transfer Mode – One might be trying an incorrect transfer mode which in turn does not allow the removable drive to recognize the copy or transfer technique used by operating system and this requires immediate alteration of some of the IDE properties. To rectify this problem, go to ‘My Computer’, select “Manage” and select Device Manger from it. Check for the CD or DVD drive in the ATA/ATAPI list, select the particular drive (device 1) and opt for properties. Then go to “Advanced Setting” and select “Transfer Mode” in which choose “PIO only”. Then press OK while returning to the main screen and restart the system.

If even after this, the error is not rectified, go back to the drive properties again and choose “DMA if available” for device 1. For device 0, select “PIO only”. Close the windows and restart the computer.
Check for loose cables in your system by checking for wiring and connections of hard disk and the CD, and try removing and reconnecting them, and copying the files again.

Keep updating CD drivers always by downloading the latest CD drivers otherwise the operating system could not recognize them. After downloading, restart the computer, transfer some files and check for the presence of the error. To effectively deal with I/O device error, try downloading the updated files frequently released by Windows and the OSs to check for incompatibility problem.

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Source by Tauqeer Ul Hassan