How to Really Make Money Watching Commercials

You’ve heard about websites that allow you to make money watching commercials. That sounds too easy to be true, does not it? After all, watching commercials is something we’ve done our entire lives and it really does not take any special skills, or does it?

The opportunity to make money watching commercials is a legitimate one. However, it’s important to understand that it’s not quite what you may be thinking it is. The watching commercials part will continue to be relatively easy. The making money part is going to take some work.

How permission marketing works

Permission marketing is a recent trend in advertising that makes all the opportunities where you get paid to be exposed to commercial messages possible. Permission marketing means advertisers have to ask first before they can blast you with their message. In order to get you to say yes, advertisers are willing to pay you some cash.

On a per ad viewed basis, though, the incentive is pretty pathetic. We’re talking a penny or two for a thirty second ad. That does not even add up to $ 2.00 an hour.

So how do you really make money watching commercials?

Another thing about advertisers is they want as many people exposed to their ads as possible. There’s a reason advertisers have paid millions for spots on the Superbowl. They know millions will be watching the game and those same millions will see their ad.

Advertisers are willing to pay you not only for viewing ads, but also for getting others to view the ads. When you invite five friends who each invite five friends down to four levels, you end up with a downline of 625 people. If you invited ten people who each invited ten people down to four levels, you have a downline of 10,000 people. Now we’re talking serious cash. If each person views ten ads, those fractions of pennies per ad start adding up. Essentially, permission marketing has gotten married with network marketing to provide an opportunity for you to make money watching commercials.

How to make the most of the opportunity

The only way the opportunity to make money watching commercials will work well for you is if you recruit others into the opportunity. There are two ways to do this.

The first is to invite all your family and friends. Some people find this easy to do; others find it more difficult and awkward. When inviting people you know, take care to not spam anyone. Do not send out a mass email about the opportunity. Take the time to write a personal email or personally call each of your friends. Be upfront about your reason for writing or calling, briefly explain the opportunity and give them a call to action (check out the opportunity through your affiliate link) and a promise to follow up after they’ve had time to consider it.

If attempting to recruit your friends and family makes you squeamish (that’s always been the icky part of network marketing, has not it?), You can still build your downline through Internet marketing. In many ways, Internet marketing is a better way to do it because rather than having to persuade people to sign up who have never even thought of it, you will be intercepting the people out there who are already looking for such an opportunity. You just have to let them know of the opportunity. You do this by targeting keywords they are likely to search under.

Internet marketing is not difficult to learn, and believe it or not, you can run an entire campaign without having to pay a dime. You need to learn how to do it, then you need to take action on what you’ve learned. Your opportunity to make money watching commercials should be free (if it’s not, it could be a scam, so beware), which will remove one major barrier in convincing the people you encounter to join.

You absolutely can make money watching commercials once you build a solid downline of people doing the same. You can build your downline by recruiting people you know and / or through Internet marketing.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

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Source by Fernanda Powers

Breast Enlargement: Reduce the Risk of Rippling

Rippling, or wrinkling as it is often referred to by cosmetic surgery professionals, is a fairly common side effect of breast augmentation surgery. Unfortunately, this side effect ruins the appearance of augmented breasts as the skin can appear „wrinkled“ or „rippled“ much like water rippling on a river or pond. These creases of wrinkled skin are actually a result of the implant beneath the skin taking on a rippled appearance. Whichever way one looks at it, the last thing any woman wants is to have her new implants ruined by unsightly ripples.

There are numerous factors that do contribute to the rippling of breast implants, and there are most definitely ways to ensure you reduce the risk of rippling.

Firstly, saline implants are much more likely to ripple than silicone implants. The wrinkling is most likely to occur due to under-filling the saline implant, and although surgeons often lean towards over-filling as a way to avoid this, it is by no means a practice which is supported by manufacturers as this could lead to deflated implants in the longer term.

Thinner women are also more likely to experience rippling as they tend to have less of their own breast tissue to cover the implants. Again, even thin women are much less likely to suffer from wrinkling and rippling if they opt for silicone implants.

In addition to all of this, the placement and texture of the implants can also contribute to the risk/ reduced risk of rippling. For instance, implants placed beneath the muscle run a much lower risk of rippling along the upper and inner side of the breast, than those placed above the muscle. However, this does not mean that they can’t ripple along the outside and under regions as these are not covered by the muscle. In terms of texture, smooth implants run a much lower risk of wrinkling, whilst textured implants may be more likely to ripple.

Lastly there is profile and natural breast tissue to consider. For whatever reason, high profile implants tend to ripple less than low profile implants, although the choice between the different profiles is usually dependent on the size and shape of your body and not always in the control of the patient. Whilst we are speaking of factors out of control of the patient, it is important to speak about natural breast tissue.

When it comes to breast enlargement and rippling, the bottom line is the patient’s natural breast tissue. The less you have in terms of your own breast tissue, the higher the risk of wrinkling. No matter what precautions you end up taking, if you have little or no breast tissue, you will be more likely to develop wrinkles than a person with a fair amount of their own breast tissue.

The good news for women that have already had breast enlargement surgery that has resulted in a rippled or wrinkled outcome is that it is possible to rectify with a corrective surgery and possibly new implants. This is by no means an ideal however it is possible with a credible and reputable cosmetic surgery provider.

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Source by J Samuel

Forex Pooled Account

Before we get started in our analysis of the pros and cons of „pooling“ money to maximize profits, reduce or eliminate taxes, and of course personal privacy; we have to say yes we do manage a Private Forex Pool for people we consider friends and acquaintances.

Preliminary details of our Private Forex Pool Account are given at the conclusion of this analysis and interested parties may contact us for information.

What is a „pool account?“

Definition: Any fund in which multiple investors contribute assets and hold them as a group. InvestorWords.com, Web Finance, Inc

Pros

  • The advantage of a pooled account is the simplicity of setting up one account over a separate investment account for each individual participant.

Source: Destel-Bergen Corporation Retirement Plan Consultants

Pros

  • Have you ever wondered why the CPI, GDP and employment numbers run counter to your personal and business experiences?The problem lies in biased and often-manipulated government reporting.

„John Williams‘ Shadow Government Statistics“ is an electronic newsletter service that exposes and analyzes flaws in current U.S. government economic data and reporting, as well as in certain private-sector numbers, and provides an assessment of underlying economic and financial conditions, net of financial-market and political hype.

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Source: The SGS Newsletter

Cons

  • The disadvantage is that the plan sponsor is liable for investment decisions made in the account. In addition, a pooled account will not take into consideration the different investment styles and time horizons of various plan participants. If the plan sponsor invests aggressively, and the plan takes some short-term losses, an older participant nearing retirement could conclude that the plan sponsor did not invest the retirement plan in his or her best interest. The same could be said of a younger employee who would prefer an aggressive investment style, but is stuck in a conservatively invested pooled account.

Source: Destel-Bergen Corporation Retirement Plan Consultants

Pros

  • The Prosecution’s Case Against Alan Greenspan

Should Alan Greenspan, the former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board (1987 – 2006), be tried for Crimes Against the Economy, put up against a concrete wall, handed a cigarette, offered a red blindfold, and then executed by firing squad? Yes – absolutely. No question. (And this coming from an anti-death penalty, anti-abortion Catholic.) Herewith, the case for the prosecution. Source: Zero Hedge, Fri, 03 Sep 2010 00:00 CDT

Pros:

  • UK: George Osborne’s secret plan to slash sickness benefits

Secret plans to slash the welfare bill by £2.5bn for people who are disabled or too ill to work are being up drawn up by the chancellor, George Osborne, documents leaked to the Observer reveal. Source: Toby Helm, Guardian UK, Sat, 11 Sep 2010 06:32 CDT

Pros:

  • Hedge Fund Manager’s Secret Insider Trading Code: „How’s The Weather In Healthcare?“

A former hedge fund manager basically just bragged that he traded on inside information and doesn’t mind paying the SEC a fraction of his profits on said (alleged) insider trade. Source: Courtney Comstock, Business Insider, Wed, 01 Sep 2010 07:45 CDT

Cons

  • A forex (or foreign exchange) scam is any trading scheme used to defraud traders by convincing them that they can expect to gain a high profit by trading in the foreign exchange market. Currency trading „has become the fraud du jour“ as of early 2008, according to Michael Dunn of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission. But „the market has long been plagued by swindlers preying on the gullible,“ according to the New York Times.

Source: Wikipedia

Pros american_dream_over1.jpg

  • 30 Statistics That Prove The Elite Are Getting Richer, The Poor Are Getting Poorer And The Middle Class Is Being Destroyed

Source: Robert Reich, The Economic Collapse Fri, 03 Sep 2010 00:00 CDT

Pros

  • Ripping off Dead War Vets‘ Beneficiaries

Wall Street and other financial scammers do it from the living, Prudential and many insurers from the dead, ripping off families of killed war vets.

Source: Stephen Lendman, OpEdNews Sun, 05 Sep 2010 22:07 CDT

Pros moodys_executives.jpg

  • Moody’s Escapes SEC Lawsuit, Now Moves to Shield Itself From Liability

Current and former executives of credit rating agencies are sworn in during a hearing before the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee on Capitol Hill on Oct. 22, 2008. Despite allegations that Moody’s Investors Service, one of the three major credit rating agencies, committed fraud when it failed to fix what it knew was an erroneous rating, the Securities and Exchange Commission announced on Tuesday that it wouldn’t sue the rating agency.

Source: Marian Wang, Pro Publications Thu, 02 Sep 2010 00:00 CDT

Cons:

  • CFTC Charges North Carolina Foreign Currency Firm Barki, LLC and Its Recently Deceased Principal Bruce C. Kramer in Alleged $40 Million Ponzi Fraud

North Carolina Federal District Court Issues Restraining Order Freezing Assets and Appointing a Receiver. Washington, DC –The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) announced today that it charged Barki, LLC of Mint Hill, North Carolina, and Bruce C. Kramer with fraudulently soliciting at least $40 million to trade leveraged foreign currency contracts (forex), misappropriating at least $30 million of customer funds to pay purported profits, return principal to customers, and for personal expenses.

Source: U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Release: March 18, 2009

Pros

  • Does Our Economy Really Have to Run on Fraud?

What is the difference between today’s economy and Lehman Brothers just before it collapsed in September 2008?

Source: Michael Hudson, Counterpunch Fri, 03 Sep 2010 13:56 CDT

Cons:

  • CFTC Charges Tennessee Resident and Las Vegas-based Firm with Fraud and Misappropriation in $20 Million Commodity Pool Ponzi Scheme

Federal Court Promptly Freezes Assets of Dennis R. Bolze and His Firm, Centurion Asset Management, Inc.

Source: U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Release: March 12, 2009

Pros

  • US CEOs who laid off the most workers got the most pay

Chief executive officers responsible for the 50 biggest mass layoffs of 2009 pulled in $12 million for the year on average, 42 percent higher than other CEOs at major companies, and hundreds of times more than the average US worker.

Source: Naomi Spencer, World Socialist Web Site Fri, 03 Sep 2010 10:38 CDT

Cons

  • „The average individual foreign-exchange-trading victim loses about $15,000, according to CFTC records“ according to The Wall Street Journal. The North American Securities Administrators Association says that „off-exchange forex trading by retail investors is at best extremely risky, and at worst, outright fraud.“

Source: Wikipedia

Pros

  • One million US public school students homeless

A report released in July by the advocacy groups National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth (NAEHCY) and First Focus reveals the explosive growth of homelessness among public school students during the economic crisis.

Source: Clement Daly, World Socialist Website Thu, 02 Sep 2010 09:30 CDT

Pros 0827_socialsecurity_full_600.jpg

  • Social Security: The futile fight for what’s been promised

Social Security redistributes wealth from the young to the old. The government keeps promising young payers that they’ll get their share – but no one believes it anymore.

Source: Bill Bonner, The Christian Science Monitor Sun, 29 Aug 2010 19:34 CDT

Pros

  • Treasury Makes Shocking Admission: Program for Struggling Homeowners Just a Ploy to Enrich Big Banks

The Treasury Dept.’s mortgage relief program isn’t just failing, it’s actively funneling money from homeowners to bankers, and Treasury likes it that way.

Source: Zach Carter, AlterNet Wed, 25 Aug 2010 00:00 CDT

Pros

  • Analyst: Citigroup Is Cooking the Books

An all-out war has broken out between Citigroup CEO Vikram Pandit and a prominent securities analyst who is saying that the big bank may be cooking the books by inflating its earnings through an accounting gimmick, FOX Business Network has learned.

Source: Charlie Gasparino, Fox Business Wed, 25 Aug 2010 00:00 CDT

Pros CNN_simpson.jpg

  • Co-chair of Obama debt panel under fire for remarks

An advocacy group is calling for the ouster of former Sen. Alan Simpson, the co-chairman of President Obama’s bipartisan debt commission, who described Social Security as a „milk cow with 310 million tits!“ in an email.

Source: Jeanne Sahadi, CNN/Money Wed, 25 Aug 2010 09:48 CDT

Pros blair.jpg

  • Tony Blair Sets Up Mayfair „Bank“ to Act as a Deal Maker in Investments for the Super-Rich

* Former PM’s company can act as an investment bank * Blair’s memoirs hail his ‚visionary friend‘ George Bush

Source: The Daily Mail Sun, 22 Aug 2010 09:26 CDT

Pros

  • Time for Change: Why the Corrupt Few Wreak So Much Death, Destruction, and Suffering on the Rest of us

Perhaps the most important question of our time why, throughout human history, have despicable characters repeatedly risen to the pinnacles of power. The 20th Century alone witnessed an estimated 140 million war deaths and another 16 million from genocide. Mass starvation kills millions in an era when there is plenty enough food to feed the world. And not coincidentally, in the world today 40% of the world’s wealth is held in the hands of 1% of its inhabitants, while the bottom 50% owns only 1% of the world’s wealth. That means that the top 1% owns 40 times more than half the world’s population.

There are of course numerous reasons for this sorry state of affairs. But certainly the tremendous wealth and power disparity in the world, along with the abuse of that power by so many who have the most of it explains a great deal. Why have so many despicable characters throughout history acquired the ability to inflict so much suffering on the rest of humanity?

Source: Time for Change Democratic Underground, Ponerology.blogspot.com 2 August 2010

Summary

As you can see for yourself the necessity and outright emergency to take advantage of any investment that provides a legitimate opportunity for self preservation is in one’s best interest.

Basically, the only pitfall to „pooled accounts“, aside from the obvious skill in trading is the honesty and integrity of the fund manager. You must know who you are dealing with and you must know they can be trusted. If in doubt, visit the fund manager for lunch and invest a small sum to get started.

Develop trust, confidence and friendship with the fund manager. Hopefully, the fund manager is a person that shares your vision and their energy (vibes) resonates with your own.

„When I tell the truth, it is not for the sake of convincing those who do not know it, but for the sake of defending those that do.“ – William Blake

Kemosabe Private Pool Account

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Synopsis:

  • 25% (+) return monthly (goal);
  • Cash withdrawal of all profits monthly via cash or mutual convenient alternative (Note: bank transfers charges or third party fees are deducted);
  • $250 USD minimum investment = 1 Share;
  • Transparency: Full disclosure of  account statement monthly;
  • Management fee = 25% of profits payable monthly
  • Power of attorney given to named lawyer in the event fund manager is incapacitated;
  • Available to friends and referrals only;
  • Honor system: An honor system or honesty system is a philosophical way of running a variety of endeavors based on trust, honor, and honesty. Something that operates under the rule of the „honor system“ is usually something that does not have strictly enforced rules governing its principles.Source: Wikipedia

fishing.JPGProfit Distribution Example: My good buddies Frank, Jake, and Chris came down for the Blue Marlin tournament and decided to invest in the Kemosabe Pool Account.

  • Frank invested $500 / 2 shares;
  • Jake invested $250 / 1 share; and
  • Chris invested $1,000 / 4 shares

Total   $1750 / 7 Shares

At the end of the month a profit of $1,000 was realized and the following distribution occurred: $1,000 profit less 25% ($250) management fee = $750 profit; $750 ÷ 7 shares = 107.00 per share;

  • Frank received $214.00 / 2 shares;
  • Jake received $107.00 / 1 share; and
  • Chris received $428.00 / 4 shares

Total   $749.00 / 7 Shares

„The best way to find out if you can trust somebody is to trust them.“ – Ernest Hemingway

For more information on investing in the Kemosabe Pool Account, contact us:

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Skype: Kemosabeforex 


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Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Jhon Neil

Canadian Olympic Coins, 1976

In order to honor and additionally celebrate the Olympic games being held in Canada in 1976, special series went into production starting in 1973. There were seven of them in the Olympic collection and they have now become a good value for the average collector. There were five and ten dollar silver coins with rare one hundred dollar gold prime collectibles that were minted in the year 1976. The ones that are gold are a collection item for casual and series fanatics alike.

The value of the Canadian Olympic silver collection is not more than what they were initially valued at. The five dollar items are typically worth five dollars, and the ten dollar valued at ten dollars. Those that have never been in circulation may go for slightly higher. If someone is really interested in making a profit from them, they may be able to receive twice their value when melted down into silver. Those that are in mint condition and packaged in collectible cases will also fetch a higher price on auction websites and specialized websites.

Gold Canadian Olympic coins are worth at least double their face value on the market. Sites that sell them will usually claim the value if in mint condition and cased at over two hundred dollars. The reason is that they are in fact made of gold which has increased in value. Also, not many of them were made making them harder to find in the collecting community, although not completely uncommon.

People who are interested in them will find that they are not only limited edition but they are also pleasing to the eye. Anyone who has an appreciation for coins will be able to see the careful designs and imagery used to represent Olympic events. Each series of the coin covers a different part of the Olympics including summer sports, team sports, and even souvenirs. These coins are not only a great addition for a coin collector but also for fans of the Olympics and people who want to remember the Olympic events that year.

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Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

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Source by Theo S Steward

A Survey on Intrusion Detection Systems in Manets

A survey on Intrusion Detection Systems in MANETs

 Shahid Shehzad Bajwa

 Pakistan Air Force-Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology

 shahidshehzad_321@hotmail.com

Abstract

 Ensuring security in Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is very crucial. In recent years a surge of research and expansion for Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) has demonstrated its great potential for establishing communication over a large number of application scenarios.  Adhoc Network security is different from traditional network security. In this paper we have surveyed the use of Intrusion Detection System in the Adhoc Networks and analyzed their fruitfulness.

Introduction
An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a defense system, which detects malicious activities in a network. One feature of intrusion detection systems is their ability to detect or provide a view of malicious activities and issues by notifying or block a assumed connection. IDS tools are capable of distinguishing between attacks coming from own employees or customers and attacks posed by hackers. An intrusion Detection Systems has its core element a sensor (an analysis engine) that is responsible for detecting intrusions. It has decision making mechanisms is called sensor that receive raw data from knowledge base, system log and audit trail sources. The role of sensor is to filter information and discard any irrelevant data obtained from the event set associated with the protected system. Intrusion detection systems can be arranged as centralized or distributed. A distributed IDS consists of multiple Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) over a large network, which communicate with each other. This survey report discusses the security issues at cluster based security management. In node level security management each node is responsible for securing itself. MANET routing protocols can be divided into proactive and imprudent categories. Both proactive and reactive protocols can suffer from control packet floods caused by malicious nodes.

 What is MANET and how MANETs are different from other networks?

Mobile Ah-hoc Networks (MANETs) are networks that are made of mobile and power controlled nodes infrastructure less self organizing, all the nodes share the same functions with respect to the network operation, (i.e. there is no node that is in charge for authentication or security services). It is vulnerable to security attacks due to its features of open medium, dynamic changing topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring, management point, and lack of a clear line of defense. 

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) is slightly more delicate. It exploits the nodes redundancy of nodes and the self-organizing network prototype to overcome some problems that are inherent to wireless networks (tradeoff between distance and transfer rates) or to networks in general (congestion, configuration and installation costs). Applying the above definition of WMN, you may find that both MANETs and WMN are „self-organizing“, but you could also argue that MANETs can be seen as a subset of WMN. The most interesting application of WMN, tough is probably the use of wireless nodes (either mobile or fixed) to convey traffic from mobile users that have a wireless device to the wired internet. 

 A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively scrutinize physical or environmental circumstances, such as high temperature, echo, shuddering, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations.  They were originally motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. However, wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas, including environment and locale monitoring, healthcare applications, home computerization, and traffic management.

 MANETs Security Approaches

 There are mainly two approaches to securing a MANET: proactive and reactive. The proactive approach attempts to prevent security threats in the first place, typically through various cryptographic techniques. The reactive approach seeks to detect threats a posteriori and react accordingly. Both approaches have own merits and is suitable for addressing different issues in MANET. For example, most secure routing protocols adopt the proactive approach in order to secure routing messages exchanged between mobile nodes, while the reactive approach is widely used to protect packet forwarding operations. Due to the absence of a clear line of defense, a complete security solution for MANETs should integrate both proactive and reactive approaches, and encompass all three components: prevention, detection, and reaction. The prevention component deters the attacker by significantly increasing the difficulty of penetrating the system. Ad hoc wireless internet extends the service of the internet to the end users over an ad hoc wireless network; some of the applications of the ad hoc internet ate wireless mesh networks. 

In Sensor networks security manage by a centralized control called base stations. A base station is typically a gateway to another network, a powerful data processing or storage center, or an access point for human interface. They can be used as a nexus to disseminate control information into the network or extract data from it. The sensor nodes establish a routing forest, with a base station at the root of every tree. Base stations are many orders of magnitude more powerful than sensor nodes. Typically, base stations have enough battery power to surpass the lifetime of all sensor nodes, sufficient memory to store cryptographic keys, stronger processors, and means for communicating with outside networks. 

No matter how carefully the prevention mechanisms are designed a completely intrusion-free system is infeasible. In MANETs, detecting and reacting components that discover the irregular intrusions and take reactions to avoid persistent adverse effects are indispensable for the security solutions are called Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). They explore issues associated with deviations from normal system or user behavior which are concerned with the detection of hostile actions. 

Classification of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)

 To classify the intrusion detection systems there is a family of tools that use information derived from a single host based IDS (HIDS) and those IDSs that exploit information obtained from a whole segment of a local network  (network based IDS). The HIDS reside on a particular computer and provide protection for a specific system. They are not only equipped with system monitoring facilities but also include other modules of a typical IDS. Two primary types of HIDS can be distinguished: 

a.    Real Secure Agent, and Port Sentry System monitors incoming connection attempts. These examine host-based incoming and outgoing network connections. These are particularly related to the unauthorized connection attempts to TCP or UDP ports and can also detect incoming port scans.

b.    Systems which examine network traffic (packets) that attempts to access the host. These systems protect the host by intercepting suspicious packets and looking for aberrant payloads. 

c.    Login Activity Monitoring Systems monitors the networking layer of their protected host (Host Sentry). Their role is to monitor log-in and log-out attempts, looking for unusual activity on a system occurring at unexpected times, particular network locations or detecting multiple login attempts. The network-based type of IDS (NIDS) produces data about local network usage. The NIDS reassemble and analyze all network packets that reach the network interface card operating in promiscuous mode.

 Role of Intrusion Detection Systems in MANET Security

 In Mobile ad hoc network security attacks on routing information [1], exhausting nodes resources, maliciously manipulating data traffic is caused by lack of network infrastructure. AIS (Artificial Immune System) architecture protects and reacts against known and unknown dys-functions and attacks in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. It is designed as two systems, primary IDS and secondary IDS. These components communicate across the network. The primary IDS are centralized and responsible the packager component was originally missing from selection. In order to adapt to new attacks, a process through which components of successful detectors are recombined using the evolutionary process to make new detectors. The secondary IDS are distributed and are responsible for data gathering, data reduction, detection, and response. It also forwards successful detections to the primary IDS. The architecture of AISANIDS contains two major components.  The secondary IDS consist of four components, the sensors, the packager, the detector, and the response. The primary IDS consist of only an analysis component. The sensors collect audit information and convert it to a common event format. The packager performs data reduction by grouping the events into sessions. The analysis component uses these sessions to create detectors. The detector component matches current sessions to its detectors. Finally, the response component automatically responds to attacks. Ideally, once the secondary IDS had a set of detectors, it could continue to function even if the primary IDS failed. Further recommend combining both detection methods to maximize the effectiveness of IDS. 

Real time intrusion in service oriented and user centric intrusion detection system [2] decreases ubiquitous computing for the user short term and long term behavior. SUIDS (Service-oriented and User-centric Intrusion Detection System) with Chi-Square Statistic Test increases ubiquitous computing for the user short term and long term behavior. In this way, the observation reflects the ‘most recent past‘ characteristics of variables in an online fashion. Along with a chi-square statistic test, SUIDS (Service-oriented and User-centric Intrusion Detection System) can measure not only the mean and variance of variables, but also their probability attributions and occurrence patterns. It handles the heterogeneity issue of pervasive network by classifying network nodes into three major categories (head nodes, service nodes, and user nodes) and integrating intrusion detection with service specific knowledge. Security-related factors and subtle scenarios will be considered and tested regarding the system detection effectiveness. A resource-efficient detection algorithm will be investigated to further improve the performance of SUIDS. 

Poor connectivity and limited bandwidth makes network vulnerable to security attacks at node level communication in mobile ad hoc networks.  Mobile Agent Based Intrusion Detection System (MABIDS) [3] runs on each node intrusion detection  system  locally  and  equally  cooperates  with other intrusion detection systems  running  on  other nodes.  It derived from a MANET requirement analysis. The  mobility  and  autonomy  associated with  MAs  to  provide  an  efficient  and  flexible  solution  to  poor  connectivity  and  limited  bandwidth  in  MANET  context. In architecture of intrusion  detection  is  based  on  collection  and analysis  of  system  and  network  audit  data.  Upon detection, intrusions report to security management. Architecture  of  MABIDS contains the System  Administrator (SA) is in charge of harmonizing all the  activities among the modules,  such  as  Sensor   management (SM), Event Manager  (EM),  Response  Agent (RA), IDS Agents Framework, and PMADE. The sensor management is composed of Data classifier and Data formatting.  Data  classifier  collects  raw  data  from  system  audit  and  local  route.  The data that comes out of the Data classifier divided into three groups:  system-level data, user-level data and packet- level data.  Data  formatting  processes  the  group-data  with  the  data  formats  rules  of  local  IDS  and  outputs  event  data. Communication overhead can more reduce by dividing load into the IDS cluster nodes. 

Lack of central authority in self organized mobile ad hoc network increases security threats.  Self-organizing mechanism [4] manages security on node-level decreases security threats from mobile ad hoc networks attackers.  It based on the assumptions where individual nodes are themselves responsible for their own security level. Self-organized mobile ad hoc network a node that is responsible for its own security should carry out. The management of security becomes easier if suitable metrics can be developed to offer evidence of the security level or performance of the network. Intrusion detection and prevention (IDS/IPS) techniques can be applied for this purpose. A security monitoring system continuously estimating the actual security level can be attached to the individual nodes of a self-organized mobile ad hoc network. Exploring component metric area and identify dependencies between them.

Due to lack of network central infrastructure and central authority for authentication malicious node attacks for authentication and authorization. It protects and reacts against known and unknown dys-functions or attacks in a mobile ad hoc networks [5]. It was designed as two systems, primary IDS and secondary IDS. These components communicate across the network. The primary IDS is centralized the packager components was originally missing from selection. The secondary IDS is responsible for data gathering, data reduction, detection and response. It also forward successful detection to primary IDS.  The immune based system may miss some obvious attacks and raise alters when exposed to rare but permissible activities. 

Security attacks to gain unauthorized accesses and misuse of critical data are catastrophic for Mobile ad hoc networks. Hybrid intrusion detection and visualization method [6] secure the network from attackers to gain unauthorized accesses and misuse of critical data. Intelligent hybrid intrusion detection and visualization system introduces a two-stage intrusion detection technique. Host system calls are monitored as audit data source. Current research is conducted on a standalone host only. The first stage is the misuse detection stage that employs the signature-based detection method. A database of known detection behaviors has been developed and updated over the time. The system compares system audit data with intrusion behavior database in real time. If any intrusion is detected, the autonomous agents will start to intervene and take precautions according to the event handling mechanisms. After the signature detection stage, a graph of system call information should be generated. The second stage is the anomaly detection stage. This stage can overcome the shortcoming of the first stage and is able to detect novel attacks. It can provide additional detection such as misuse of confidential data by internal users. An anomaly-based IDS achieves this by identifying program behaviors that deviate from the known normal behavior. It monitors a program by observing event traces and comparing those traces to some expected behavior. Visualization system needs to give security officers an intuitive representation of such information as normal range of system calls. 

Due to limitations of detecting misuse and anomaly attacks in MANET makes network vulnerable from attackers. Hybrid system combines the misuse detection and anomaly detection components for applying random forests algorithm in MANET [7]. In proposed technique there are two different methods for intrusion detection misuse detection and anomaly detection. In misuse detection determines intrusions by patterns or signatures which can represent attacks. Misuse based systems can detect known attacks like virus detection systems, but they cannot detect unknown attacks. Misuse detection usually has higher detection rate and lower false positive rate than anomaly detection.  Anomaly detection technique identifies the observed activities that deviate significantly from the normal usage as intrusions.  Anomaly detection can detect unknown intrusions, which cannot be addressed by misuse detection. Finally the proposed algorithm achieves high detection rate with low false positive rate, and can detect novel intrusions. However, some intrusions that are very similar with each other cannot be detected by the anomaly detection. Due to the limitations of proposed algorithm another clustering algorithm could be investigated in the future. 

Wormhole attacks break security boundaries for detecting information in wireless ad hoc networks. A model novel end-to-end wormhole Detection system [8] detects intrusion attacks on wireless ad-hoc networks because of its features of lack of centralized administration, limited resources, dynamically changed network topology, and wireless communication. Message bombing, black-hole attack, and wormhole attack, rushing attack are from major attacks in wireless ad hoc networks. Among wireless ad hoc network intrusion detection techniques have been studied. They can be classified into three categories: signature based intrusion detection , anomaly based intrusion detection, and specification based intrusion detection. Proposed method, called end method, in detecting wormhole attack. A wormhole is a dedicated connection between two endpoints which are normally multi-hops away. The adversary either connects the two endpoints by a wired link or installs two radio transceivers at the two locations. Then the attacker sends and re-transmits every packet received at one end of the wormhole at the other end. In this way, the wormhole disrupts the network routing by generating shorter routes in the network.  Further improvements on same work are ongoing. 

Security attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data generates congestion in Mobile ad hoc networks. An agent-based cooperative anomaly detection scheme [9] prevent from security attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data.  The anomaly detection is performed in a cooperative way involving the participation of multiple mobile nodes. Unlike traditional signature-based misuse detection approaches, the proposed scheme detects various types of intrusions/attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors. Without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data, the approach eliminates the time-consuming labeling process and the impacts of imbalanced dataset. The proposed agent-based cooperative anomaly detection approach builds on cluster-type architecture. It is energy efficient by implementing the function of intrusion detection in a cooperative fashion for each cluster. 

Malicious intruders infiltrating poison the collaborative detectors with false alarms, disrupting the intrusion detection functionality and placing the whole system at risk increases security attacks on mobile ad hoc networks. A P2P-based overlay detection method [10] detects malicious intruders infiltrating poison the collaborative detectors with false alarms, disrupting the intrusion detection functionality and placing the whole system at risk increases security attacks on mobile ad hoc networks. The traditional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are limited and inferior in comparison to the attackers‘ capabilities. Typically, traditional IDSs work in isolation, only seeing relatively small subsections of the Internet, and thus they are unable of deriving significant trends in the whole network. This is especially true for new and emerging attacks, where being able to observe a large amount of deviant behavior would increase the detection and protection capabilities. Efficiency and scalability are some of the critical issues that like to address in our future work. Needs plan to adopt efficient communication models and experiment with different message filtering and peer grouping strategies. 

Security attacks on certification services to gain authentication causes the congestion in MNET. Secure and effective distributed certification service method using the Secret Sharing scheme and the Threshold Digital Signature scheme [11] secures certification services in the MANET. It is an effective authentication scheme to solve the problem that the whole network security would be damaged by the intrusion of one node and to reduce the risk of the exposure of the private keys. Using cryptographic schemes, such as digital signatures to protect routing information and data traffic, usually requires a key management service. A common way for doing this is adopting a public key infrastructure, which in turn requires a trusted entity, Certification Authority (CA), to the network of key management. Establishing a key management service with a single CA is problematic in MANET. If this single CA is unavailable, nodes cannot receive the current public keys of the other nodes, which mean it cannot establish a secure connection. Furthermore, if the CA is compromised and leaks its private key to an adversary, the adversary can then sign any erroneous certificate using this private key to impersonate any node or revoke any certificate. Certification scheme is based on Polynomial secret sharing and Threshold digital signature. Each mobile node forming MANET has its own identifier such as the MAC address. For further improvement the delay time related to renewing the certificate must be reduced. 

Security attacks decreases highly available communication processes during detecting faults and intrusion in mobile ad hoc networks. LITON (Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network) architecture [12] aims at providing highly available communication in spite of faults and intrusions in the mobile ad hoc network. It is the first overlay network that is able to tolerate intrusions that shows how routing schemes originally developed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be used in overlay networks, and introducing a smart route caching strategy that allows for quick recovery when faults are detected. In LITON Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network every overlay node is an Internet host residing in an autonomous system (AS). Autonomous systems may be connected via public or private (not globally advertised) links. Overlay node placement is arbitrary; however, since LITON is explicitly designed to overcome limitations of Internet inter-domain routing, spreading nodes across different ASs may significantly improve network availability. 

Conclusion 

No doubt that the IDS are here to stay, although future systems will undoubtedly take a different form than our modern day versions. The mathematical and AI (artificial intelligence) concepts required for success are already being developed, tested and improved upon. In this survey paper we have discussed various Intrusion-Detection-Systems for mobile ad hoc networks based on different protocols to detect the intruders and resolve the security attacks. Many intrusion detection systems are under implementation processes and it is also possible that IDS will merge the independent network components and tools which exist today, into a complete and cooperative system, committed to keeping networks stable.

Future Work

 Black hole attacks will be investigated and new model for grouped Black hole attacks will be proposed soon. Black hole attacks gain the information from non-updated routing tables and represent them self as shortest path. After receiving data packets they drop it.

References

 [1]. A. Karygiannis, E. Antonakakis, A. Apostolopoulos, „Detecting Critical Nodes for MANET Intrusion Detection Systems,“ Second International Workshop on Security, Privacy and Trust in Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (SecPerU’06), pp. 7-15, June 2006. 

 [2]. Bo Zhou, Qi Shi, Madjid Merabti, „Intrusion Detection in Pervasive Networks Based on a Chi-Square Statistic Test,“ 30th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC’06), pp. 203-208, September 2006. 

[3]. Upinder Kaur, R.B. Patel, „Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks: A Mobile Agent Approach,“ 9th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT’06, pp. 77-80, December 2006. 

[4]. Reijo Savola, Ilkka Uusitalo, „Towards Node-Level Security Management in Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,“ Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (AICT-ICIW’06), pp. 36, February 2006. 

[5]. Hongxia Xie, Zhengyun Hui, „An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Ad Hoc Network Based on Artificial Immune System,“ Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT’06), pp. 1-4, December 2006. 

[6]. Jiong Zhang, Mohammad Zulkernine, “ A Hybrid Network Intrusion Detection Technique Using Random Forests,“ First International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES’06), pp. 262-269, April 2006. 

[7] Jiong Zhang and Mohammad Zulkernine „A Hybrid Network Intrusion Detection Technique Using Random Forests,“ Approach,“ International Conference on Information Technology December 2006. 

[8]. Xia Wang, „Intrusion Detection Techniques in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,“ 30th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference, pp. 347-349 (COMPSAC’06), September 2006.

[9]. Hongmei Deng, Roger Xu, Jason Li, Frank Zhang, Renato Levy, Wenke Lee, “ Agent-Based Cooperative Anomaly Detection for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,“ 12th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems – Volume 1 (ICPADS’06),  pp. 613-620, July 2006.

[10]. Claudiu Duma, Martin Karresand, Nahid Shahmehri, Germano Caronni, „A Trust-Aware, P2P-Based Overlay for Intrusion Detection, „17th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA’06),   pp. 692-697, September 2006. 

[11]. Kiho Shin, Yoonho Kim, Yanggon Kim, “ An Effective Authentication Scheme in Mobile Ad Hoc Network,“ Seventh ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD’06),  pp. 249-252, June 2006. 

[12]. Rafael R. Obelheiro, Joni da Silva Fraga, „A Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network,“ Ninth IEEE International Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC’06), pp. 496-503, April 2006.

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Source by Shahid Shehzad

The History of Gold Coins Issued by Usa

The first gold coins in the United States were issued back in 1795. The Unites States Mint set the value of the U.S. Dollar at 24 grains of gold. The value was based in accordance with the world price on the precious metal, which at that time was $19.39 per troy ounce.

The U.S. gold coins started to be issued in seven different mints around the country as the Western Frontier of the Unites States began its expansion. The mints were set from Philadelphia to San Francisco. The sizes of coins varied from one dollar gold piece to fifty dollar denomination. It is worth mentioning that at that time the U.S. mints issued coins that were worth their weight in gold.

In 1834 and 1837 U.S. Congress modified the gold specifications by setting the price of gold at a mark of $20.67 per ounce. When the Great Depression occurred in 1933, President Roosevelt made gold an illegal asset for the citizens of the United States. During this period, by Roosevelt’s order, all gold coins were returned to U.S. Treasury and the melted into gold bars. After that the value of the U.S. dollar coin was set to $35 per ounce. The global outcome was to decrease by 40 percent the buying power of the dollar

When millions of gold coins were melted into gold bars, they became very rare and thus highly sought by various collectors. According to money experts only about one percent of gold coins can be found today. Each gold coin that survived till nowadays is highly valued by collectors and investors.

Every gold coins minted in the United States before 1933, is valued on individual basis according to its date, rarity, appeal among various collectors and its grade.

What is Rare Coin Grading Worth?

Coins that fall under the category „rare“ are graded on ANA (American Numismatic Association). The scale ranges from 1 to 70. Coins are certified authentic and then PCGS or NGC, two leaders in providing coin grading services. For example a gold coin graded 1 has a slightly visible date, very wear and its value is a little above its weight in gold or precious metals. Obviously the better the coin is preserved the more a collector or investorinvestor in willing to pay for it.

Double Eagles

1933_double_eagle_gold_coin_reverseVery often a collector starts his Gold Coin Collection of U.S. coins minted before 1933 with a $20 Double Eagle. Note that from 1849 to 1907 U.S. Mist issued the Liberty series. The Mint then changed the design of the Double Eagle into Saint-Gaudens. The latter were minted in the period between 1907 and 1933.

Starting a collection of Pre- 1933 U.S. gold coins is advantageous for several reasons:

„Pure Gold Content“ – this means that each coin includes almost 1 troy ounce of gold.

„A Double Profit Opportunity“ The gold market is continuously changing and $20 Double Eagle gold coins already have a history showing the continuously rising value, which goes 2 to 3 times higher in value if compared to the gold bullion alone.

The 1933 Saint-Gaudens Gold Double Eagle Coin

One of the most valuable, if not the most valuable, coin is considered to be the 1933 Saint-Gaudens Gold Double Eagle1933 Saint-Gaudens Gold Double Eagle. It actually was never officially issued. Still it appeared from 1907 until 1932. Although in 1933 there were 445,500 Double Eagle minted, none were released into circulation because of the changes made in currency laws during the Great Depression.

The result of the Great Depression was that president Franklin Roosevelt took America off the gold standard. The gold coins were drawn out of circulation and afterwards were not issued anymore. Besides, people had to return the ones they had

Later, in 1933, the Double Eagle coins were declared illegal. It was prohibited to own any of the gold coins, unless they had a collectible value.

The same year Gold Double Eagle coinsGold Double Eagle coins were ordered to be melted by the U.S. Mint. By 1937 billions of gold bars were made out of these unique coins.

A few coins have escaped from being melted down. In1933 two of them were given by the Mint to the U.S. National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institute. These two Gold Double Eagle coins were known as the only legal specimens to ever become part of a coin collection. Still by 1952, eight additional coins were discovered. These were confiscated by the Secret Service.

Today 19 of the some of most valuable 1933 Gold Double Eagle coins are owned by a Philadelphian jeweler, Israel Switt.

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Source by Xavier

Why Anti-Spyware Software is Important

Spyware programs have been designed to affect PCs across the world. A recent review states that almost nine out of every ten computers are affected with spyware. This is because most home users are unsuspecting and also freely use the internet for all purposes. Anti spyware software comes in various packages and formats, you can get them on trail basis and if you like the software than you can buy it without having a second thought. Free spyware removal programs are easily available on the internet for download free of cost.

Spyware can very easily get into your computer without your knowledge. They silently follow you each and every activity on the internet and steal your private data, which may include your e-mails ids, credit card or bank account numbers and passwords. They are capable of doing all the criminal activities on the internet. Some spyware programs make advertisements luring the user to click on it, and once user click on that attractive program, they instantly get in your pc without your knowledge.Though there are free options that will help you to feel more secure (it’s definitely more secure than having nothing), paid options are much better. All in all, you will be happier and more protected with a paid program that offers frequent updates, support and service, and gets the job done more efficiently. Always do your research before buying an anti-spyware software; make sure other customers have great things to say about it.

Getting Spyware on your PC is inevitable. Your PC is prone to spyware attack and can be infected in many ways. It may be just from opening a wrong email or loading a wrong website or downloading music/movies/anything from a wrong source. Whenever you download a program or file or click on a pop-up ad, there is always a danger of downloading spyware and adware into your system. Whatever may be the reason thousands of the PC’s are prone to spyware each and every day.

Paid anti-spyware is much better in the long-run because it should be constantly updated with new algorithms and detection tools. You pay for the service and receive updates periodically that change with the new threats present on the internet. You also get better support services with paid software. If you need help with a technical issue, paid software usually comes with help 24/7 to get you through the issue and back up and running. It has more support because it’s trying to turn a profit; it needs to be the best to have people continue to subscribe. Check out the customer service of the paid software you’re interested in. If it wants to keep it’s members, it will probably have excellent service. In contrast, many free programs come without technical support or service at all.

The severity of the spyware and adware attack is very huge. There are around 80,000 spyware and adware programs on the web and all of them can be a serious threat to your PC. These programs install themselves and slow down the speed of your PC by taking up vast amount of hard disk space and it is impossible to remove them manually without the aid of anti spyware or anti adware software.

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Source by Linda Holstrom

Id Card Security – Types of Blank Id Cards

There are a myriad of possible combinations of card types, but in the real world you are likely to come across the following ID cards:

Standard plastic card
Also known as: PVC card
Description: A simple plastic card, with no added features like magnetic stripes or chips.
Applications: ID only with no access control or payment.

Magnetic stripe card
Also known as: Mag stripe card, HiCo card.
Description: A plastic card with a magnetic stripe on the back.
Applications: Magnetic stripe is used for access control or for payment.

Contact chip card
Also known as: Smart card, Chip card.
Description: A plastic card with a visible chip on the front of the card. Contact is required between the chip and the terminal for the chip to operate.
Applications: Chip is used for access control or for payment. Their speed and relative low cost has made them the choice for credit cards and ATM cards.

Contactless card
Also known as: Proximity card, Prox card.
Description: A plastic card with a chip embedded inside the card, which is attached to an antenna, so that the chip can operate by radio-frequency, meaning no physical contact is required. Most of these cards are known as proximity cards, as they only work at short range – between a few inches to a few feet.
Applications: Chip is used for access control or for payment. For access control, contactless cards are better than contact chip cards for outdoor or high-throughput uses like parking and turnstiles.

Combination cards
Also known as: Combi cards.
Description: Cards that combine contact and contactless technologies.  There are two types of these – 1. Those with one chip that has both contact pads and an antenna. 2. Those with two chips – one a contact chip, the other a contactless chip with antenna.
Applications: These cards are the most expensive, and are often used for applications like mass transit or government cards.

Read the original article here

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Source by Valerie Douard

Become a Millionaire Overnight Without Doing Anything?

Are you the sort of person who could be attracted by a headline such as the one above? Do you really believe that it is possible to make that kind of money without any effort on your part? Of course you don’t because you are a sensible rational adult who know that in this life you get nothing for nothing.

So if you and I cannot be fooled by these sort of smoke and mirrors claims who are the millions of people who respond to headlines and sales letters with almost as outlandish claims every day? Guess what, it is people just like you and me.

Be honest have you never responded to some advertisement or sales letter that seems just too good to be true. I suspect like me you probably have and within a short time you have realised that what may have appeared a great idea on paper is simply is a load of old rubbish.

So what is it in all our natures that make us want to believe that there is some hidden secret of creating wealth from nothing? I suppose that it is the same reaction as when we buy a lottery ticket and just for a few minutes we imagine what life would be like should we win.

I think possibly it is the optimists that get suckered into these wild schemes because somewhere in the back of their brains they know that the plan almost certainly will not work, BUT.. it just might. Most people use the glass half full half empty image to define optimists and pessimists but I have another analogy. An optimist is some who when buys a lottery ticket EXPECTS to win, a pessimist KNOWS he is not going to win.

Quite frankly there has never been a better time for anyone to build themselves considerable wealth. It is possible to start with practically nothing and in a relatively short time build considerable wealth. A ex work colleagues have mine has a son you was going to go to further education and wanted to get some cash to pay for his time at university. He came up with a simple idea, got some press coverage and made over $1 million in a very short time. He was the guy who got the idea of selling 1 million pixels on his web site for $1 a time; you may have read about him.

The formula for how to become wealthy can be broken down into plan, effort result. You need a plan or idea, add dedication, effort and determination and this will equal wealth. If you take a plan or idea and add nothing that will always equal nothing.

Someone once told me that there is a name for having a goal but taking no action, it is called day dreaming.

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Source by D J Bromley

The Nexus One Phone vs. Motorola Droid

Which is the better phone?

The Nexus One or         Motorola Droid

Just this morning, Google held a live press conference from their corporate headquarters in Mountain View, California, and spilled the beans on their new smart phone, the Nexus Oneincluding where it will be available for purchase and  how much you will have to pay to get one.

Most significantly, the network you will soon be anathemising with your new Google phone will be T-Mobile’s. The phone will be available for $179 with a contract (and free overnight shipping anywhere in the US), or $530 unlocked and contract-free.

>>>Get A Free Motorola Droid<<<

And these are the technical particulars you’ll get for that kind of coin:

– 3.7-inch, 480 x 800 AMOLED display

– 1GHz Snapdragon processor

– 5 megapixel camera with LED flash

– 3.5mm headphone jack

The phone also comes preloaded with a 4GB microSD card, but will accept up to 32GB. Charging and connectivity will be handled through a mini-USB port, and the Nexus One also sports an LED-backlit trackball for purposes currently unknown.

Will this be the new  iPhone killer? It’s still early days, but what we are hearing so far are certainly very positive reviews., and the inclusion of expandable and interchangeable storage, a great  camera with a flash, and a 1GHz chip will defianetly be give the iPhone makers plenty to ponder over.

It seems like just yesterday the Motorolad Droid just hit the market. And here is the best part, for a very limited time, you will still be able to receive the Droid for free.

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Source by Stephen